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How to breed a female dog?

For the breeding of pedigree dogs, the conditions should preferably be in writing, agreed upon by the owner of the stallion and the owner of the bitch, stallion and bitch being the appropriate terms for the breeding male and the breeding bitch respectively. In the majority of cases, the interested parties refer to article 2 of the International Breeding Rules, even if in this field of the reproduction of purebred dogs, it is admitted that the owners of the dogs are free to organize the mating of the bitch without formalism, in a consensual way. Let's take stock of the situation and see what precautions should be taken by the two owners and breeders before the mating of the dog and the female dog.

Breeding a female dog: taking the necessary precautions

For both the owner of the bitch and the owner of the male, it is highly recommended to anticipate the event by making sure that all the following points are true.

Advice to the owner of the female dog (reproductive breed)

  • He is not allowed to have his female dog bred by several stallions during the same heat period.
  • Check that the stallion :
    • Is compatible with the origins of the bitch,
    • Is registered in the LOF on a permanent basis if he is French or if he comes from a foreign country that he is registered in a herd book recognized by the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale),
    • Is declared fit for reproduction,
    • Has been screened and found free of any hereditary defect.
  • Make sure that the owner of the breeding dog (stud dog) :
    • Is of legal age,
    • Holds the animal on a regular basis. It may happen that a stallion is co-owned. In this case, the third parties and/or beneficiaries must give their consent,
    • Has the pedigree of the dog, which proves that the stallion has been confirmed.
  • Have proof, before mating, that the stallion is the one agreed upon by the two owners. Note that nothing prohibits the mating by another stallion, provided that the owner of the bitch is informed and has clearly indicated his agreement.

Advice to the owner of the stallion (breeding dog)

  • The owner must read the entire stud certificate before signing it, as it is binding. It is therefore necessary to verify beforehand that all the indications concerning the bitch appear formally as well as the owner's coordinates. Be careful, signing a blank certificate of service is totally prohibited and is liable to disciplinary action.
  • It is strongly recommended to require that the owner of the female dog be constantly present and consequently to refuse any request to take custody of the bitch to be mated, even if only for a short time. This precaution makes it possible to avoid the responsibility of an accidental mating which could be the cause of an affiliation error, which could lead to the payment of high damages if a complaint were lodged by the buyers of the puppies born from this mating.
  • He must take the precaution of signing two copies of the mating certificate, as a photocopy cannot be used as proof in case of need.

Mating between stallion and bitch: informal agreement between owners

Since mating is understood to be the voluntary intervention of the owners of the male and female to allow this biological act to take place and result in a pregnancy, the rules are agreed upon. However, there are not really precise conditions to draw up this type of agreement which is thus completely informal since the French law does not impose anything to the owners of the dogs concerned. The organization of the mating can therefore be freely organized as long as the two owners manage to find a common ground and that this is recorded if possible.

It should be noted that the FCI issues in its article 2 of the International Breeding Rules some recommendations. It is stipulated that the agreement between the owner of the stallion and the owner of the brood mare can be verbal or written, free of charge or for a fee, but that it must clearly define at least the financial conditions related to the mating if it has been decided by both parties. This article advises to put the conditions in writing so that they can be easily invoked if necessary.

It is also important to consider the possibility of an unsuccessful mating leaving an empty pen. It can be agreed that the owner of the stallion will reimburse the amount of money he has received or will grant a second mating (free of charge, of course).

On the other hand, each of the two parties must refer to the International Breeding Regulations (which is however a matter of private international law) specifying the conditions of registration of the litter in the LOF (French Book of Origins) and reminds us that adherence to the regulations of the SCC (Société Centrale Canine) and of the FCI is implicit for the owner of the litter. The latter must complete a declaration of mating, a form that can be downloaded, sign it and have it signed by the owner of the stallion. This is of course if the dog and the female dog do not belong to the same person.

In the case of a mating involving a dog and a female dog whose owners do not reside in the same country, it is agreed that the declarative formalities fall to the owner of the female dog. Thus, if he resides in France, it is up to him to take care of the declaration of the puppies to the LOF, the female dog being able to be visited on the place indicated on the declaration and the certificate of mating. If he lives in another country, the local regulations will apply.

Finally, if artificial insemination is to be performed, all costs involved should be borne by the owner of the female dog, and it is preferable to have this in writing.

How much does it cost to breed a female dog?

Although there is no requirement that a fee be charged for the breeding of a purebred female dog, the owner of the female dog will usually pay a fee to the owner of the breeding male. As stated earlier, it is in the interest of both parties that this condition be clearly stated in the agreement. In fact, a mating is considered to be free of charge if no commitment has been signed by both owners beforehand.

Nothing obliges the breeder of the bitch to give a puppy born from this mating free of charge - as compensation for example - to the other party. Moreover, the other party has no right to the puppies in the litter. However, if such an agreement were to be made, the terms should be drafted in advance. Similarly, domestic law does not require the payment of any sum of money or any type of consideration to the breeder of the stallion since a mating can be decided without compensation of any kind. Similarly, it is not tolerated that the female dog is the subject of a retention as a pledge.