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Uterine tumor in female dogs: causes, symptoms and treatment

Unspayed female dogs are the most affected by uterine tumors, especially older and middle-aged female dogs. However, no more than 0.4% of all tumors diagnosed in female dogs are uterine. What are the causes and what are the symptoms that may lead to the suspicion of a uterine tumor in female dogs? Can this type of pathology be treated and how serious is it?

The different types of uterine tumors in female dogs

Uterine tumors in female dogs are not very common, but they occur in the following proportions:
  • 9 out of 10 are benign,
  • 1 in 10 is malignant.
A benign tumor is one that is not life threatening. This is the case of leiomyoma which is located in the smooth muscle tissue.

As for leiomyosarcoma or LMS, it is a malignant tumor of the uterus in female dogs with a poor prognosis. It develops in the smooth muscle. It is therefore a soft tissue sarcoma. This rare, slow growing tumor is serious because it is locally aggressive.

Uterine tumor in a female dog: symptoms

There are few symptoms in a female dog with a uterine tumor. The most that can be noted are:
  • An increase in abdominal volume,
  • Vulvar discharge that is not systematic:
    • Either blood,
    • Or pus.
  • A loss of weight,
  • Fatigue.
One must be very vigilant because the tumor can settle down in an almost asymptomatic way, the manifestations intervening only much later. If it is a cancerous tumor of the uterus, the female dog is seriously exposed if not treated. As with all types of cancer, the earlier the diagnosis, the greater the chance of a cure.

Uterine tumor in female dogs: treatment

Once the tumor has been diagnosed by the veterinarian, the only option is surgical intervention to remove the entire reproductive system. The female dog undergoes an ovariohysterectomy, which means the removal of the ovaries and the uterus.

In the case of cancer, and moreover if there are metastases, the animal must undergo radiotherapy (radiation) or chemotherapy (drugs) in order to stop their proliferation but also to destroy these cancerous cells.

The prognosis is quite favorable in the case of a benign tumor. For a malignant tumor, the prognosis is also favorable if the female dog has undergone an ovariohysterectomy, provided that there are no metastases.

Uterine tumors in female dogs are rare and should not be confused with uterine infections, which are much more frequent and often caused by hormones. In any case, having your female dog spayed as soon as possible is the best way to protect her health. It is also the best way to actively fight against dog overpopulation and considerably reduce the number of abandonments.

So that the sterilization of a dog or a female dog does not impact the budget of its owner, it is in his interest to subscribe a contract with a mutual health insurance company for pets. Depending on the formula chosen, he/she can be reimbursed for all or part of the expenses incurred, up to an annual reimbursement limit.