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At what age should I deworm my puppy?

The puppy is very sensitive to his environment and consequently to certain parasites. Among them, we find intestinal worms, cestodes and nematodes. An infestation can cause many symptoms and these worms are even the cause of various diseases. It should also be noted that the puppy can be contaminated by worms while he is still in his mother's womb or while he is nursing! Deworming your puppy is therefore essential to preserve his health but also that of all family members. When should a deworming be administered to a puppy and how often so that he is best protected and avoids contamination of the whole family?

The different intestinal worms in dogs

The puppy and the adult dog can be contaminated by different types of parasitic worms, namely
  • Cestodes or flatworms that look like grains of rice accumulated in a long string. These intestinal worms are called tapeworms.
  • Nematodes or round worms that look a bit like spaghetti. These include whipworms, roundworms and hookworms.
Deworming is necessary to eliminate them.

Deworming your puppy to protect the whole family

Giving your puppy a deworming treatment is important to protect his health, but also that of the humans and animals living around him. This will avoid any risk of contamination. If we are not careful, everyone can catch various diseases transmitted by parasitic worms. They spread very easily in the environment.

Playing the prevention card therefore protects everyone. Let's not forget that before infesting the small intestine, and thus reaching their adult size, worms cause lesions in certain organs of their host while they are still in their larval state. They can affect the intestines of course, but also the heart and lungs for example.

Moreover, these worms reproduce very quickly and humans run the risk of ingesting eggs when handling their animal. Precautions must be taken with children because they are extremely exposed to the risk of being contaminated because they spend a lot of time with their pet, cuddle it or sleep with their puppy. Contamination is also common in young children through their toys, for example, because they frequently put their fingers in their mouths.

The best age to deworm your puppy

The deworming of a puppy should be done as soon as possible:
  • As soon as an adopted puppy arrives in the home, then every 4 weeks until it reaches the age of 6 months.
  • From the age of 15 days for puppies born at home, then every 14 days until the young are 2 months old and then, until their 6th month, every 4 weeks.
It is important to deworm your female dog a few days before giving birth, as well as all the dogs and cats (young and adult) living in your home.

To deworm your puppy, it is essential to consult your veterinarian beforehand, because only he knows exactly what dewormer is appropriate for your young animal, depending on its age, weight, health and the environment in which it lives. It is strongly recommended to observe, in parallel to a regular deworming of the puppy and then of the adult dog, an irreproachable hygiene of the living space and to make sure that all the members of the family wash their hands very regularly after having handled the animal, its bowls, its basket, or after having been licked by their dog.

The Braque du Bourbonnais, a very old French dog breed

France is rich in multiple dog breeds. Some are less known than others. This is the case of the Braque du Bourbonnais. This very old breed is appreciated by hunters for its pleasant company. It is also an outstanding family dog. 

Characteristics of the Braque du Bourbonnais

The Braque du Bourbonnais has a powerful and strong style, without compromising on nobility. Despite its rustic appearance, it exudes a beautiful elegance. This medium-sized dog measures between 48 and 55 cm if it is a female and between 51 and 57 cm for males. The weight oscillates between 16 and 25 kg according to the age and the sex. The Braque du Bourbonnais has a medium-sized pear-shaped head with a large nose, a slightly accentuated stop and a pronounced, broad muzzle, which is a characteristic of all Braccoid dogs. The animal displays large round eyes with hazel to dark amber notes and makes dog lovers fall in love with its soft and expressive look. The ears have a length joining the level of the eyes. They are wide at their attachment and fall to the cheeks. The dog is also distinguished by its dense and short hair. The coat is white, but is spotted with fawn or brown.

History of the Braque du Bourbonnais breed

The first mentions of the Braque du Bourbonnais date back to the Renaissance in the book entitled "Natural History" written by Ulisse Aldrovandi. It is described as a robust dog and an outstanding hunter with a white spotted coat. The breed is said to have originated in the historical region of Bourbon in the Allier region of France. It did not know only happy days, because it almost disappeared during the First World War. Some breeders have indeed proceeded to selections based on purely aesthetic criteria to the benefit of working abilities. In the end, the animal lost its interest among hunters. Fortunately, 40 years later, new breeding programs have focused on quality, which has allowed the Braque du Bourbonnais to regain its letters of nobility.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Braque du Bourbonnais

Accurate and able to evolve on different terrains, the Braque du Bourbonnais is appreciated for its intelligence and passion. It is versatile and can hunt all kinds of game thanks to its ability to adapt. At home, it is an animal full of tenderness and gentleness. It is a quiet and balanced companion especially with children who must learn to respect its needs. He is afraid of solitude and prefers the constant presence of his humans. Long daily walks are one of the conditions that will allow the Braque du Bourbonnais to live in an apartment. Due to its origins as a hunting dog, regular physical activity is a must.

Diet and main health problems of the Braque du Bourbonnais

The Braque du Bourbonnais has no specific health problems. It is robust and is appreciated for this quality. However, specialized breeders advise to watch out for dermatological problems such as vitiligo, demodectic mange or epidermolysis bullosa.

The German Hound, intelligent and dynamic dog

The German Hound is an affectionate, intelligent and dynamic animal that shines with its iron health and elegance. A hunting dog in its country of origin, it also brilliantly fulfills the role of family dog, provided that it evolves with sporty owners. Sedentary life is clearly not for him.

Characteristics of the German Hound

Noble, high, with a light gait, the German Hound has the advantage of being well built. This hound measures between 40 and 53 cm and weighs between 19 and 20 kg. Its medium size allows it to easily catch hares or game. One of its particularities is its long tail that ends in a point and is densely hairy. The head is as elegant and light as the body. Long and lean, it is topped by a round skull and a slightly accentuated stop. The flesh-colored nose, the strong jaw and the slightly arched muzzle make it possible to recognize the breed. As for the eyes, they show a soft and gentle look and reveal a dark color. The ears for their part have a round end and are placed against the head. They are longer than wide. The German Hound has a short, straight and tight coat. The dress goes from red to fawn and can present white spots filled with black markings.

History of the German Hound breed

The German Hound is not a new breed. We mention its existence since the XIXth century. It would have been created by German stockbreeders with the aim of obtaining versatile hunting dogs. It is quite difficult to determine its exact ancestry. However, it is known that this dog is descended from the Westphalian Hound, the Bloodhound or the Greyhound. The contribution of hounds such as the Pointer, the Beagle or the Foxhounds is also possible. The German Hound has been successful in Germany because of its multi-tasking quality. Hounds were further developed after traditional hunting techniques were replaced by stalking and stalking methods. It was only in 1964 that the breed was officially recognized by the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale).

Living conditions and behavior of the German Hound

Because of its origins as a hunting dog, the German Hound is distinguished by its boundless energy. He is a keen tracker and develops an exceptional sense of smell, which is why hunters are so fond of this breed. But this dog is not only dedicated to work. It can become an excellent pet. It is very affectionate, calm and gentle. Even if it tends to reveal a strong character, it remains balanced in general. Before adopting the German Shepherd Dog, it is important to be sure that you can meet its physical exercise needs. He can live in an apartment only if he gets the maximum amount of activity.

Diet and main health problems of the German Hound

One of the strengths of the German Hound is its iron health. It is a dog that rarely gets sick. However, because of its long ears, the appearance of ear infections should be monitored. As for its food, it must be rich in nutrients and meet its energy requirements, especially since it is a very lively animal.

Taking the train with your dog: advice and good practices

Traveling by train with your dog must not disturb the passengers or the animal. It is therefore recommended to find out about the dog owner's obligations before ordering tickets and to take them into account so that the outward and return journeys can take place in the best possible conditions. Let's take a look at what you need to do to travel with your dog on the SCNF network.

Travelling with your dog: respecting SNCF regulations

The SNCF regulations are one of the first things to consider before organizing a trip by train if you have to take your dog with you. Here is a reminder of the main rules to keep in mind, knowing that the SNCF offers various solutions to travel by train, whether it is by TGV, TER or Intercity train. As for the Eurostar, it is strictly forbidden to dogs but is authorized to any guide dog.

The Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Français (SNCF) makes every effort to ensure that its customers can be accompanied by their dogs or certain other pets during train travel. As far as dogs are concerned, the following are authorized
  • Guide dogs: the ticket is no longer eligible, but in order for the dog to travel as an assistance animal, it is necessary to be able to produce any type of document that can prove its education as an accompanying or guide dog.
  • Small dogs, i.e. weighing less than 6 kg. They must travel on the lap of the master or at his feet and must imperatively be held in a carrying device of dimensions 45 x 30 x 25 cm. It can be:
    • Either a bag,
    • Or a closed basket.
  • Dogs weighing 6 kg or more must be muzzled and kept on a leash.
Attack dogs (Mastiff, Tosa, Pitbull) are strictly forbidden on trains.

How much does it cost to take the train with your dog?

A single passenger is authorized to travel with one or two dogs at most, provided that all obligations are respected. As an indication, the fare applied under these conditions for a traveling dog weighing less than 6 kg is approximately 7 € and the trip is free for a guide dog.

For a dog weighing 6 kg or more, the fare is calculated on a kilometre basis. For dogs that cannot be transported in a cage measuring 55 x 35 x 25 cm, the owner must pay a pet fee of approximately 30 €. This option is mandatory for all dogs over 6 kg and applies to many other pets.

Please note, however, that if a dog weighing less than 6 kg travels outside a bag or crate, its owner is obliged to pay the price of a full-fare ticket for his pet. In some cases, a supplement of €15 may be required.

It is clear that it is very difficult to find your way around because the SNCF applies many different rates depending on the length of the journey, the destination, the composition of the train and the period. It is better to go to the ticket office of a station a few days before leaving or to reserve your SNCF tickets beforehand via the Internet. This will avoid unpleasant surprises at the time of departure.

Which carrier should I choose to travel with my dog?

This cage must be comfortable while meeting the obligations imposed by the SNCF to its customers. You should therefore make sure that your pet has a sufficiently ventilated cage so that it can breathe properly throughout the journey and benefit from a renewal of the ambient air. It is also necessary to think of installing his traveling dog in a cage big enough so that he can change his position at leisure and in any case turn around.

At the same time, the owner must think of hanging a plate or a label inside the transport cage which must specify :
  • Information about the dog: its name, its identification number (tattoo or transponder, i.e. microchip), possibly the age of the dog and the telephone number of its veterinarian,
  • Information on the owner of the animal: his name, first name, postal address and telephone number, even his e-mail address,
  • Information about the destination: the address of the place where the owner and his pet will stay, and if possible a telephone number.

Traveling by train from France to another country with your dog: drastic conditions

In addition to the other documents mentioned above, it is better to have specific documents if you have to travel by train from France to a foreign country with your dog. For example, you must be able to show :
  • The dog's vaccination record, which must of course be up to date, bearing in mind that some countries require dogs to be vaccinated against rabies and even other diseases. It is useful to ask the veterinarian for more details before leaving.
  • A European passport that the dog's owner can obtain from the veterinarian and have it completed by this professional.
It is also important to find out in advance about the conditions imposed, country by country, as each country applies its own policy. For example, Italy only accepts guide dogs with a vaccination certificate and identified in accordance with the European standard in force at the time of departure.

Finally, it should be noted that the law differs depending on whether the dog is a European Union citizen or not. SNCF regulations also differ according to the company's programs, promotional offers and especially the trains (OUIGO, Thalys, IZY, Eurostar, TER, Intercités, TGV Lyria).

Traveling with your dog is an excellent idea, and it is undoubtedly more comfortable by train than by car, for the master as well as for his pet. However, it is important to respect the peace and quiet of the other passengers. For this, the owner of the animal must be sure that his dog will not pose any problem in terms of risks of contamination, noise or unpleasant odors.

Can a dog be left or right handed?

This is an unusual question, to say the least, and it is far from absurd. Laterality does exist in our little four-legged friends, as well as in feathered ones and even in snakes, but it is not as pronounced as in humans. As for chimpanzees, they are ambidextrous. This left or right preponderance could have something to do with the animals' behavior. What exactly is laterality, what is it in dogs and how do we know if they are left or right handed?

Laterality in dogs

Laterality is the term used to designate the predominance of the right or left side of the body to act, listen, see, catch, etc.. It concerns the paired organs (eyes, ears), the extremities of the limbs (hands and feet in humans), the paws, etc. It is therefore either sensory or motor. It is linked to the cerebral hemispheres which function differently from each other, and it is supported by the cerebral functional asymmetry also called lateralization. This characteristic is not only found in dogs, but in all vertebrates.

It should be noted, however, that certain cognitive, sensory and motor experiences are likely to interfere, and laterality in dogs may even depend on the type of task that the animal must perform. For the time being, studies are ongoing and scientific research in this area has not yet yielded all its secrets.

Nevertheless, it appears that in many species, especially in dogs, physiological and behavioral characteristics are related to lateralized behavior. For example, it can be stated that :
  • Whole male dogs (i.e., not neutered) have a propensity to be left-handed,
  • Female dogs are more likely to be right-handed.
However, at the moment, there is no scientific thesis that can explain this yet, but it suggests that laterality could also have a link with hormones. This does not mean that all unneutered males are left-handed and that all female dogs are right-handed!

How to know if your female dog is left or right-handed?

Just as we know if a baby is right or left handed by observing with which hand he grabs the object we present him, it is possible to know more about the laterality of your female dog. You just have to open your eye to see which paw :
  • He moves forward first when he starts a move or when he goes down the first step of a staircase,
  • He uses first to grab or push his favorite toy,
  • He uses to get rid of a post-it note that his master has put on the head or the muzzle of his dog for experimental purposes,
  • He reaches out to obey the command "Give the paw! ".
We can also look at which ear he stretches to perceive a sound.

It is also possible to carry out a small test by confronting your dog with an automatic kibble dispenser and see, for example, over 20, 40 or 50 exercises how many times the animal will use one or the other paw. All you have to do is apply a simple formula to determine the degree of lateralization (LI in the formula) of your little friend. Knowing that L represents the number of times the dog's left paw is used and that R is the right paw, the formula, which we owe to scientists, is the following:

LI = (R-L/R+L)x100

With this test, an owner can know if his dog has a strong or weak degree of lateralization (right or left).

Are right-handed dogs different from left-handed dogs?

Let's just say that the studies done on the subject - knowing that they are quite recent, still few and far between and need to be completed - have shown that, on average, right-handed dogs are less stressed than left-handed dogs, that they are easier to train or to educate, that they obtain better results at the end of a guide dog training course.

In addition, dogs that are less laterally oriented become anxious in unfamiliar surroundings and cannot sit or lie still. They are also more easily frightened by loud sounds than other dogs, whether they are right- or left-handed. In the current state of scientific knowledge on the subject, it seems that the more lateralized a dog is, the less likely it is to show signs of fear or anxiety.

These indications are very interesting, especially for people who want to select canines to become guide dogs. These animals must be perfectly balanced, reactive, and it is normal to choose dogs that are neither fearful, nor anxious, nor stressed.

Ringworm in dogs: symptoms, cause, treatment and prevention

Ringworm in dogs is a zoonosis, which means that it can be transmitted to humans. It is extremely contagious. It is therefore very important to know how to spot its symptoms in order to consult the veterinarian as soon as possible so that the dog can benefit from an adequate treatment. But what is the cause of ringworm and is it possible to prevent it? Let's find out.

Ringworm: a very contagious fungus

Ringworm is a mycosis that is also called dermatomycosis and is caused by dermatophytes, parasitic fungi, and more specifically by Microsporum canis, but other fungi can also cause it, such as Trichophyton mentagrophytes or Microsporum gypseum. These affect puppies in particular, but adult dogs can also be affected by this canine skin disease.

The fungi responsible for ringworm are extremely resistant. They feed on fallen skin flakes and dead hair. This is enough for them to resist in any environment for several months. Ringworm is therefore a very contagious disease that can affect different animal species as well as humans. The parasitic fungi develop on the dog's skin, between its claws and on its coat. They eat away at the hair to such an extent that it becomes brittle and falls out in clumps. Each fragment of hair touched by the parasite contaminates humans and healthy animals.

Contaminating sites are extremely numerous when you have a dog affected by ringworm because its hair is everywhere: on the dog's brush, in its basket, on the living room carpet, on its masters' bed (whether it is allowed to climb on it or not), on children's toys, car seats. The risks of contamination also exist where the dog never goes since the animal's hair that clings to clothes is transported from one place to another if we are not careful. So you can be infected even when you have no direct contact with the animal.

Ringworm in dogs: symptoms

Ringworm can be identified by the following symptoms:
  • Circular skin lesions with slow evolution: they can be found on the dog's body, but they are even more frequent on the animal's legs and head.
  • The perimeter of the affected areas is inflamed,
  • Scales,
  • Crusts,
  • broken hairs,
  • A more or less diffuse depilation depending on the areas concerned,
  • Alopecia (alopecia), especially in short-haired dogs,
  • An "inflammatory and suppurated ringworm lesion" called a kerion, knowing that each lesion may contain pus and be painful,
  • An attack on the claws.
More rarely, ringworm can be asymptomatic, i.e., it does not cause any symptoms that would make it possible to identify it. However, the animal, which is then a healthy carrier, is just as contagious.

It is strongly recommended to consult the veterinarian at the slightest suspicion to avoid the inflammation to spread but also to limit the risks of contamination of all the animal's entourage.

Ringworm in dogs: diagnosis and treatment

The diagnosis of ringworm in dogs can be confirmed by three different methods:
  • Examination of the dog's hair with a Wood's lamp. This is an ultraviolet lamp that can detect the fungus that causes ringworm because it usually produces a yellow-green fluorescent substance under this type of light.
  • Microscopic examination of the animal's hair that has been eaten away by ringworm,
  • Culture of the hairs from one of the lesioned areas. The results are not available for several weeks. The veterinarian will only choose this method when the previous two methods have not yielded conclusive results or when the results are negative.
Once ringworm has been diagnosed in the dog, the animal is treated either with a natural antifungal agent such as essential oils, or with homeopathy, or with traditional medicine. In the latter case, the veterinarian prescribes an oral treatment and a fungicidal drug applied locally. The latter, applied directly to the lesions either with a sponge or a soft brush, eradicates the fungi.

However, in order for these treatments to be effective and to prevent recurrence, it is essential that they be administered to the dog for one month. It is also essential that the owner treat all of his animals (cat, hamster, etc.) including asymptomatic carriers. Humans living in the household should also be treated on medical advice because even if the animals are cured afterwards, ringworm does not disappear without treatment.

The management of ringworm is restrictive, but the entire protocol must be followed to the letter. Thus, in addition to the treatments against ringworm, it is necessary to disinfect completely the bowls, the toys, the basket and the cover of each animal, the litters, the premises intended to accomodate its animals as well as all the house.

This means screening floor and wall coverings, carpets, cushions, bedding, sofas, chairs and other furniture. Don't forget that dog hair gets everywhere, including closets! Anything that can be treated with bleach should be cleaned with this product because dermatophyte spores are not resistant to it. To complete this disinfection, it is recommended to opt for a fumigation or a spray of targeted veterinary products.

How to prevent ringworm in dogs?

It is not easy to prevent ringworm because you cannot prevent your dog from coming across an infected animal. Moreover, even if one is careful, one does not distrust an asymptomatic carrier animal since there is no indication that it could be contagious.

Prevention involves regular inspection of the animal's hair, skin and claws and maintaining impeccable hygiene in the home and in the adjoining premises, which can be regularly sprayed with a specific antifungal agent. In the same way, all the sanitary rules must be respected within a breeding, as well as the quarantine of a new arrival, whether it is a dog, a cat or other. It is the same thing in the family sphere when adopting a pet. If you have any doubts about a new pet, you can take the precaution of having your veterinarian check for the presence of dermatophytes by means of an economical examination (Wood light) or, a more expensive procedure, a mycological culture. The animal and all the people around it should be treated without delay.

The Yugoslavian Shepherd, vigorous and active dog

Underneath its airs of big chubby is hidden a vigorous and active dog that has built its reputation in the protection and guarding of herds. The Yugoslavian Shepherd is almost unknown outside of its country of origin, yet it is an animal with many qualities that can adapt to urban life under certain conditions.

Characteristics of the Yugoslavian Shepherd

Also known as the Charplanina, the Yugoslavian Shepherd is a brave medium-sized dog that measures an average of 62 cm at the withers if it is a male and 58 cm if it is a female. This breed reveals a powerful and robust body, without heaviness. The imposing and harmonious body highlights a head proportional to its size with a convex and wide skull, a slightly accentuated stop and a black and wide nose. The almond-shaped eyes denote the calm of this breed. They have a nice light brown color. As for the ears, the dog wears them drooping. They are V-shaped, of intermediate size and placed against the cheeks. In addition, the Yugoslavian Shepherd owes its teddy bear look to its thick coat. The long, flat hair is unicolored and can come in any color, preferably gray, black or dark brown. A few light white markings may be present on the toes and chest, but that is all.

History of the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog breed

The Yugoslavian Shepherd has been around since ancient times. Historians say that it was brought from Asia to Europe by migrating peoples. The dog has made its home in the former Yugoslavia for over 2000 years. He settled in the mountain of Charplanina, which is named after him today. The Yugoslavian Shepherd was used for driving and guarding flocks. When it was first registered with the FCI around 1939, it was still called the Illyrian Shepherd Dog. 18 years later, it was officially named the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog.

Living conditions and behavior of the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog

Because of its role in guarding and driving livestock, the Yugoslavian Shepherd Dog is naturally full of energy and vitality. It is said to have a highly developed instinct. When it evolves in families, it shows discretion and quietness. It likes the presence of humans and is affectionate towards its owners. It is a dog neither fearful nor aggressive. However, it can quite guard and expresses reserve towards the strangers. Moreover, the Yugoslavian Shepherd gets along well with children provided that the latter know how to respect him. And even if it is a shepherd, it can adapt to a life in apartment. He does not need to do intense physical exercises every day. A few daily stimulations that preserve its balance are enough.

Diet and main health problems of the Yugoslavian Shepherd

Like most large dogs, the Yugoslavian Shepherd can suffer from hip dysplasia. Besides, it is a dog with an iron health. As for his diet, it should be adapted to his age, his lifestyle and his physical exercises. In period of growth, it must be rich to satisfy all the nutritional needs of the animal.

The Finnish Lapphund, a dog full of power and presence

Vigor, power and presence. The Finnish Lapphund has nothing to envy to its congeners in terms of strength and appearance. This breed with strong adaptation capacities is specialized in guarding and hunting and also brilliantly assures the role of companion dog especially if all the conditions are met to ensure its well-being and happiness.

Characteristics of the Finnish Lapphund

The Finnish Lapphund is a Spitz type of dog, as its title suggests. It has an athletic and muscular physique, free of heaviness. It is an animal of medium size that measures between 46 cm and 51 cm for a weight of 25 to 30 kg. It has a long head with a convex skull and a gently sloping stop. The black nose, the pronounced cheeks, the harmonious lips are other characteristics attributed to this dog. It is difficult not to mention its oval, well-spaced and lively eyes whose color is in agreement with that of the dress. Of medium size, the ears are broad at the base, of medium size and spaced correctly between them. The Finnish Lapphund has a rather long, erect and straight coat. The coat plays with different shades of black. Dark brown or pronounced gray colors are permitted. The chest, neck and feet may have white markings.

History of the Finnish Lapphund breed

Originating in Finnish Lapland, the Finnish Lapphund was traditionally used to guard reindeer herds by the shepherds of these arctic regions. It was soon converted into a hunting dog by the Lapps. This breed is said to be a cross between the Collie and the German Shepherd. Other breeds would have participated in the creation of the Finnish Lapphund. Although the latter is old, it was not until the 1950s that it was entered in the stud book. It would become one with the Finnish Lapphund. In 1922, both breeds were officially recognized.

Living conditions and behavior of the Finnish Lapphund

Overflowing with enthusiasm and energy, the Finnish Lapphund will stop at nothing, especially when it's at work. It is a dog with a great capacity for analysis that does not act without thinking. He is not impulsive and shines for his reliability. Of a joyful and soft nature, he will make the happiness of all in the house. He gets along very well with the children towards whom he is patient and kind. Trustworthy and reckless, the animal can very well ensure the role of watchdog especially as it can bark very loudly when the situation requires it. Having origins of shepherd dogs, it will prefer to live in a house with a garden rather than in an apartment. However, a city dweller may consider adopting him as long as his exercise needs are met.

Nutrition and main health problems of the Finnish Lapphund

The Finnish Lapphund has no specific pathology. In order to live as long as possible, it needs a diet adapted to its physical activity, age and health.

The Bergamo Shepherd, a dog with a rustic and disheveled look

The Bergamasco Shepherd Dog is a pleasant companion with many qualities, including his excellent understanding with children. He is an intelligent, peaceful, patient and very loyal dog. In short, the perfect doggie.

Characteristics of the Bergamasco Shepherd

The Bergamasco Shepherd Dog is immediately recognizable by its very rustic look, highlighted by a long and abundant coat that completely covers its body. The dog has a woolly, rough-looking coat that looks like long, thick, falling strands or ropes. When the coat is not brushed, waterproof and consistent knots are formed. The Bergamasco Shepherd has a variegated or solid color coat that comes in various shades of gray. It has a body that fits into a medium-sized square, measuring between 56 and 60 cm and weighing between 26 and 38 kg. Even if it seems bigger because of the excess of hairs, the head is proportional to the rest of the body. It reveals, among other things, a rounded and wide forehead, thin lips, a stop without exaggeration and marked jaws. The dog's eyes are large and dark, they are hidden behind bushy eyebrows, as well as its mouth hidden by a thick beard. The ears for their part are semi-drooping and triangular in shape.

History of the Bergamasco Shepherd Dog breed

Coming from the Italian Hautes-Alpes, the Bergamasco Shepherd claims ancient origins since it would have been used since the Roman era, among other things, to scare away wolves. The breed has mainly excelled in sheep herding activities. It also conquered families and was used for company. This breed did not have only happy days. It was close to extinction during World War II without the intervention of Dr. Maria Andreoli who developed breeding programs. Even today, the Bergamasco Shepherd is not very convincing, especially because of its coat. However, the coat is easier to maintain than one would think, because in principle, this dog does not need to be groomed.

Living requirements and behavior of the Bergamasco Shepherd

The Bergamasco Shepherd has many qualities that make him a great pet. It is a dog with a balanced character, intelligent, patient and determined. He is patient and protective towards children and can evolve with other dogs and cats, especially if he has had the opportunity to grow up with them. It is a perfect animal for guarding. It is not aggressive and always determines the level of danger before acting. Beware, the Bergamasco Shepherd is an outdoor dog. He must be able to let off steam to be happy.

Diet and main health problems of the Bergamasco

The Bergamasco is a breed known for its robustness. It is spared from hereditary diseases and does not develop any specific pathology. However, it is advisable to watch for hip dysplasia. It also requires a diet compatible with its level of activity, its physical condition and its lifestyle.

The Old Danish Pointer, a confidential dog breed

If you haven't heard much about the Old Danish Pointer, it's because it's a confidential breed, even though it first appeared in the 18th century. Made for hunting, these dogs are characterized by their determination and enthusiasm. At home, it shows affection and loyalty.

Characteristics of the Old Danish Pointer

The Old Danish Pointer is powerful and solidly built. Its muscular limbs and balanced structure give it a supple appearance. This breed averages between 50 and 60 cm in height and weighs between 26 and 35 kg. Males are heavier than females, who have a lighter appearance. The dog is recognizable by its short, broad head with a round skull, powerful jaws, muscular, well-defined cheeks and a faint stop. Of medium size, the eyes reveal a nice dark color and express boldness. And what about the ears? They are set low, hanging and flat against the cheeks, with their tips tending to be round. The Old Danish Pointer has a short, rough coat. The coat is always white with traces of dark brown. The spots can be large or in the form of speckles.

History of the breed Danish Pointer

The Old Danish Pointer may not be as well known as many of its brethren, but the breed's origins are very old. Its existence is mentioned as early as the 18th century. It would be born under the initiative of Morten Bak, an inhabitant of Glenstrup, city located in Denmark. The breeder proceeded to cross local farm dogs, which were probably themselves descended from St. Hubert's dogs, with Bohemian dogs over 8 generations. From this came the Bak's Dog, which would have given birth to the ancestral Danish Pointer. The breed was especially prized for tracking foxes and hares. Recognized by the Danish Kennel Club in 1962 and by the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) in 1969, it is virtually unknown outside Denmark.

Living conditions and behavior of the Old Danish Pointer

The Old Danish Pointer has energy to spare and knows how to stay calm when it needs to. It develops a stable character and is very attached to its owners. As a pet, they are loyal, sociable and intelligent. He loves children and has no problem living with other dogs and cats. This dog would much rather live in the country in a large house than confined to an apartment. It needs to feel free and to have a lot of physical stimulation, at the risk of becoming destructive. As a hunting dog, he shows tenacity, determination, enthusiasm and vigor. It can track small and large game in any environment.

Diet and main health problems of the Old Danish Pointer

One of the greatest assets of the Old Danish Pointer is its robustness. While some breeds are affected by numerous genetic defects, this Danish Pointer has no specific health problems. Its diet should be compatible with its energy expenditure.

My dog does not obey: what to do?

Disobedience in a dog can quickly turn out to be discouraging for the owner, not to mention that it can present a problem in terms of daily safety. It is therefore essential not to wait to reverse the trend. But be careful: consistency and tact are essential in order not to obtain the opposite result to the one expected. It is also necessary to identify the origin of this disobedience in order to remedy it more easily.

My dog does not obey: possible causes

There are different reasons why a dog does not obey. He may have been left to his own devices from a very young age, or he may have been mistreated by an overly strict master. In the same way, if the orders he was given were not coherent, the dog could not execute them because he simply did not understand them. Unclear communication does not allow you to control your pet. Therefore, ambivalence must be avoided at all costs. If you gesticulate in all directions, shout incessantly and do not adapt the training method to the dog's character, the animal has little chance of becoming obedient.

You can't improvise yourself as a dog trainer. Thus, a brutal master or one without any authority cannot teach his dog to obey. It has been observed that a bad training method leads to behavioral problems. For example, a poorly trained dog can jump on people, become aggressive, be destructive or run away at any moment.

Finally, many owners don't take enough time to train their little companion. Training is a serious matter and should be done on a daily basis, ideally starting when the dog is 2 months old.

Obedience training for a disobedient dog: principles to follow

If you want to succeed in making your dog more obedient, it is essential to start by creating a relationship of trust to establish a real complicity between the master and the animal. For this, the dog should not be the dominant one. It is therefore his trainer who decides. But it is just as important to spend time with your dog, to take him out, to play with him thanks to physical activities and courses or games that stimulate the dog's mental capacities.

There are certain principles that must be respected to rehabilitate a dog that does not obey.
  • Understand how your dog works and how it communicates,
  • Give clear and coherent orders so that the dog understands them,
  • Always perform the same gestures and use the same vocabulary for a specific command,
  • Give a command at the time it is to be executed and not too far in advance to avoid confusion,
  • Do not be too permissive,
  • Do not shout and do not bully your pet if it disobeys: the education of a dog should never be based on fear,
  • Congratulate your dog as soon as it executes an order, even if it takes a long time,
  • Always remain positive,
  • Be patient,
  • Take the time necessary for the dog to assimilate and then perform a difficult exercise,
  • Change your method if you do not get any results.
Each session must be constructive. For that, the dog must find a real pleasure in it. This is the key to success. If you don't feel capable of making a rebellious dog obedient, the best solution is to entrust this task to a dog trainer, because the slightest error in the educational method can give the opposite result to the one you are looking for.

Finally, it should be noted that even if the education of the dog is entrusted to a specialist, it is necessary to repeat the commands learned outside the sessions and on a daily basis. In any case, anything is possible, and it is possible to make an unruly dog obey, even if it is taken in hand when it is already an adult. It is essential that the dog be subjected to obedience exercises with the greatest regularity. As for the owner, whatever his mood at the time and his worries (personal, professional), he must always be constant, patient and respectful with his little companion.

The Bouvier des Ardennes, a dog with a rustic look

Under its rustic airs, the Bouvier des Ardennes hides a formidable working dog, intractable in the driving and the guarding of the cattle. This dog is mostly known for this task. However, it can also make a valuable pet that brings joy and atmosphere to families. Discover all the characteristics of this dog like no other.

Picture Credit: Royal Canin

Characteristics of the Bouvier des Ardennes

It's hard for him to compete with the most elegant dogs. It's not really his trademark. The Bouvier des Ardennes is distinguished by its rather rough appearance due to its rough and disheveled coat. It has a rather fine physique compared to other Bouviers with a height of 52 to 56 cm for females and 56 to 62 cm for males and a weight between 22 and 35 kg depending on age and sex. This Belgian breed develops a massive head with a flat and broad skull. The stop is marked without exaggeration, the muzzle is broad and the nose black in color. The dog reveals oval-shaped, medium-sized eyes that are dark and hidden by very thick, even bushy eyebrows. The ears of small size and triangular shape are set high. The Bouvier des Ardennes has a semi-long, dry and rough coat. All coat colors are accepted by the standard except white.

History of the breed Bouvier des Ardennes

Also known as the cow dog in the Belgian Ardennes, the Bouvier des Ardennes developed in this region of the country where it excelled in guarding and driving cattle herds. His physique does not denote this function. It is necessary to say that because of its area of life with difficult climate, its body adapted and ended up sporting this rustic look. Moreover, this dog is able to work in the hardest conditions. Historically, it almost disappeared around 1960. Thanks to the work of Belgian breeders, it was reborn from its ashes around 1990. Today, the Bouvier des Ardennes tends to trade its role of working dog for that of pet.

Living conditions and behavior of the Bouvier des Ardennes

The Bouvier des Ardennes is a lively animal, always cheerful, enduring and lively. They are very courageous and deterrent, which helps them to protect their family from danger. Although not aggressive by nature, they can become aggressive if the situation demands it. The Bouvier des Ardennes being developed to work, it will not support to remain locked up all day long. It can live in an apartment as long as it goes out every day and gets physical and mental stimulation. He gets along very well with children. Nevertheless, the latter must learn to respect its tranquility.

Food and main health problems of the Bouvier des Ardennes

The Bouvier des Ardennes has no particular health problems. It can live up to 12 years on average. It owes its longevity to an adapted lifestyle marked by a balanced diet and lots of exercise.

The Catalan Shepherd, a very energetic dog

The Catalan Shepherd gives the image of a real teddy bear with its long, wavy and very abundant coat. Contrary to what his physique reveals, he is not a slacker. On the contrary, it is a dog that has energy to spare, a quality that is indispensable for guarding and driving herds. He can also take on the role of a companion dog, provided he receives regular physical and mental stimulation.

Characteristics of the Catalan Shepherd

The Catalan Shepherd is a friendly and hardy dog with an average height of 45 to 53 cm for females and 47 to 55 cm for males, and a weight of 15 to 18 kg. It is appreciated for its harmonious constitution, but also for its vivacity and sobriety. This dog has a strong head, slightly convex and wide at the base, supporting a skull with a pronounced occipital bone and a visible stop without being excessively marked. The dog reveals well opened eyes, of round shape which give off dark amber notes. The look expresses a lot of intelligence, a quality that is the signature of the Catalan Shepherd. Concerning his ears, they are fine, in triangle, pointed at the end and mobile. They are also furnished with hair in the form of long bangs. The coat is also long, wavy or smooth and flat. From a distance, it looks like a solid black coat. However, in reality, it combines several shades: gray, sand and fawn.

History of the Catalan Shepherd Dog breed

Although the Catalan Shepherd is a fairly common Iberian shepherd breed, its origins remain relatively unclear. In fact, there is no official record of its origins. This is due in part to its geographic isolation. Nevertheless, the mystery surrounding its history did not prevent it from being officially recognized by the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) in 1954. The Catalan Shepherd Dog originated in the Catalan Pyrenees and is believed to be a cross between local breeds of dogs and the Bergamasco Shepherd Dog. It is the shepherds and shepherdesses of Catalonia who have contributed to its success.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Catalan Shepherd

The Catalan Shepherd shines by its intelligence. When working, they are even able to take the initiative to prevent the herd from dispersing and to facilitate its direction. In addition to its qualities in guarding and driving the livestock, it can also carry out guarding missions because it is courageous and brave. On the other hand, the Catalan Shepherd is gentle and calm towards children, which is why he will make a wonderful companion close to his family. Dynamic and lively, this dog is only happy in the presence of its masters. He is sociable and can get along with his fellow dogs. Moreover, it can live in an apartment, but must go for walks and exercise every day.

Nutrition and main health problems of the Catalan Shepherd

The Catalan Shepherd is not subject to any specific hereditary disease. However, it is recommended to watch its growth to avoid damaging the articular cartilage as it happens in big dogs. As far as food is concerned, this is not a demanding animal. It will be necessary to take into account its physical activities to rationalize and formulate its meals.

The Scottish Deerhound, a powerful and fast dog

The Scottish Deerhound is a model of power and speed. This dog attracts attention with its robust and elegant physique. It is an animal renowned for its ability to hunt big game. Beyond that, it can be a pleasant pet, provided that it has the right living conditions for its well-being.

Characteristics of the Scottish Deerhound

The Scottish Deerhound has the most "stretched" body of any sighthound. It is distinguished by its strong bones and powerful body. At first glance, they resemble the Irish Deerhound, but have a slimmer body. It measures 71 cm on average if it is a female and 76 cm for the male with a weight of about 30 kg. It is said that it is a dolichocephalic dog, which means that it develops an elongated muzzle. The Scottish Deerhound can be recognized by its long head that tapers to the eyes. The skull is flat and the stop is non-existent. It reveals dark brown eyes of medium size that express a look full of softness. The ears for their part are set high and of small size. They stand up when the animal is awake. As for the coat, it is hard and shaggy like "wire". The coat is very variable, but the uniform grey-blue one is the most sought after. Brindle, fawn or orange coats are also accepted.

History of the Scottish Greyhound breed

A halo of mystery surrounds the true origins of the Scottish Deerhound. The truth is that this breed seems so old that it is difficult to trace its history accurately. There are references to its existence as early as the third century AD. It is said to be descended from the Celtic Greyhound, a breed specialized in hunting in open terrain, but now extinct. Its development would have been carried out on the high plateaus of Scotland. According to some writings, the Scottish Deerhound would have been used by the famous hero Fingal in hunting deer. It was also one of the favorite breeds of the author Walter Scott, who described it as "the most perfect creature ever".

Living Requirements and Behavior of the Scottish Greyhound

Unlike most sighthounds, the Scottish Deerhound develops a gentle, caring character and is very open to gestures of affection. It is a calm animal in a family. However, if given enough space, they will express all their energy by jumping around. On the other hand, it is intelligent and sociable, even if it can show reservations towards the foreigners. It is also an inveterate player since it needs to spend as much time as possible. The Scottish Deerhound can live in the city as long as it gets daily walks and lots of physical activity. It is the ideal breed for sports such as coursing (sight chasing on a lure) or racing on a dog track.

Nutrition and main health problems of the Scottish Deerhound

The Scottish Deerhound is a hardy breed as long as it doesn't gain weight. In any case, they are not big eaters. A balanced diet will keep him in good shape. Among the diseases to watch out for are osteosarcoma, cardiomyopathy and stomach dilatation.

The Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie

The list of dogs of French origin is particularly long. It includes breeds that are not very familiar to us, such as the Anglo-Francais de Petite Venerie. Balanced, tireless and tenacious, this dog excels in hunting activities, which does not prevent it from being a very good pet.

Characteristics of the Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie

The Anglo-Francais de Petite Venerie is a solidly built dog, with a balanced silhouette and free of heaviness. It is a medium-sized animal that measures between 48 and 56 cm and weighs around 25 kg. It has a moderately broad and elongated head with a slightly accentuated stop and a convex skull. The dark nose, the slightly tapered muzzle and the slightly arched muzzle make this breed recognizable. The eyes are brown and large and have a lively expression, but with a touch of softness. Of medium size, the ears are supple and relatively thin. The Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie has a short and smooth coat. The coat can be bi-colored and display an orange and white color with a tobacco nose. It can also be white and black with the presence of tan markings and in this case, the nose will be black. Otherwise, white, black and tan tricolor coats are also accepted.

History of the Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie breed

The Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie is one of those French dog breeds that we don't usually hear about, but which is unanimously acclaimed by dog lovers for its many qualities. Very little is known about its true origins. According to history, the dog would have appeared in the 1950s and would have been born from a cross between several French medium-sized breeds such as the Petit Poitevin, the Saintongeois, the Porcelaine, the Harrier or the Petit Bleu de Gascogne. Originally, it would have been conceived to run the hare. Moreover, this dog has an exceptional speed. It was then progressively used to hunt foxes, roe deer or wild boar.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie

Its origins as a hunting dog do not deceive. The Anglo-Francais de Petite Venerie has the talents required for this activity. It is fast, enduring and above all, extremely fast. It is an animal which prefers to evolve in pack. In these conditions, it will put forward its ardor to work and its tenacity. It is devoid of aggressiveness and is not fearful either. The Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie can also live in a family, but it will be necessary to supervise it well in the presence of young children. On the other hand, it cannot adapt to the city life and must evolve rather in mountain or in the countryside.

Diet and main health problems of the Anglo-Francais de Petite Vénerie

The Anglo-Francais de Petite Venerie lives on average up to 12 years. It is not predisposed to any specific hereditary disease and reveals a good robustness. However, it is advisable to be careful with elbow or hip dysplasia, cataracts or demodecy. For his health, it will be necessary to simply provide him with rich and balanced meals which adapt to his energy expenditure. During the hunting season in particular, you should offer him a diet tailored to his needs, on the advice of a veterinarian.

The Polish Hound, faithful and vigilant dog

Passionate hunter, excellent watchdog and affectionate pet, the Polish Hound is a versatile dog that adapts to the lifestyle you can offer him. It is a persevering, faithful and vigilant animal that you can count on in all circumstances.

Characteristics of the Polish Hound

The Polish Hound captures attention with its massive, powerful and compact physique, revealing harmony in its proportions. Its body is a symbol of speed, endurance and strength. Of medium size, the dog measures between 55 and 65 cm and weighs between 20 and 32 kg depending on its age and sex. They are classified as hounds with a working trial in the standard. The Polish Hound is distinguished by its relatively heavy, chiseled head, which fits into a rectangle. The stop is accentuated, the forehead is wrinkled and the superciliary arches are also marked. The dog has a large, black nose and strong jaws. If its body is synonymous with strength, its look expresses tranquility and softness. His eyes are dark brown and almond-shaped. The ears are set low, hanging and rounded at the tips. The Polish Hound has a short, smooth coat that is dark gray or black except on the legs, thighs, ears and head where the coat is tan.

History of the Polish Hound

The Polish Hound is not well known, but it is a very old breed. Indeed, its existence is mentioned since the 13th century. Originally from Poland, as its title suggests, it was one of the preferred hunting breeds of the nobility. It was used in particular to hunt big game. According to the legend, this breed was born from a cross between local dogs and the Saint-Hubert dog. It was officially recognized by the FCI in 1965. However, the Polish Hound is almost unknown outside of Poland.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Polish Hound

This dog has many qualities. It is determined, enduring and develops an exceptional sense of smell. It is also a dog full of passion and vigor in hunting activities. For all these reasons, he is unanimously appreciated by hunters. Moreover, he can work in difficult environments and over long distances. At home, the Polish Hound is an exemplary companion. He is loyal, affectionate, docile and well-balanced. It never shows aggression, although it is naturally wary of strangers. Thanks to its powerful voice, it will know how to give the alarm. Because of its pedigree origins, the Polish Hound will not be able to live in small apartments in the city. It is an animal that needs large spaces to roam.

Diet and main health problems of the Polish Hound

The Polish Hound is a robust dog that is not prone to any hereditary disease. It is a resistant and solid animal. To guarantee its good health, it will nevertheless need a balanced diet.

The Billy, affectionate and intelligent dog

He is rare and little known outside of France. However, the Billy deserves all the honors, because it is an affectionate, intelligent and efficient dog. He excels in hunting activities, but can very well become a loving and easy-going pet.

Characteristics of the Billy

The Billy captures all the attention with its athletic and sporty look with a powerful and well-muscled body. He is said to be dolichomorphic and dolichocephalic. It is a large dog that measures between 58 and 70 cm and weighs around 30 kg. It is recognizable by its fine and dry head of medium length that reveals a bulging forehead, but without excess. This one carries ears set high, flat and of intermediate dimension. The Billy has a beautiful, expressive and lively look thanks to his dark and open eyes. Concerning his coat, it is short, even short, and has a certain density in addition to being hard to the touch. The coat is entirely white and can have different shades of white with lemon or light orange spots or even café au lait.

History of the Billy breed

The Billy is not well known compared to many of its counterparts. However, the Billy is not a recent breed, far from it. This dog appeared in the Poitou region of France around the 19th century and was developed by Hublot du Rivault. This lord of the manor and dog breeder had as a project to reproduce the White Dogs of the King, very appreciated by the royalty, in particular Louis XIV, Henri IV or François I. To achieve this, he had to make many crosses with breeds that no longer exist today such as the Larye, the Montaimboeuf or the Céris. The Billy is a rather confidential breed. The fragility of the genetic heritage makes the perpetuation of this dog complicated.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Billy

The Billy has the advantage of having a good character. It is a pleasant, intelligent and dynamic animal. It is also a working dog par excellence. It was especially developed for hunting and shines for its talents in this field. Moreover, it has an exceptional flair. Efficient and fast, it adapts to all environments and climates. It is a very energetic dog that constantly needs to spend time. It will not be able to be raised in an apartment in the city and will have to be surrounded by sporty owners with whom it can run. The Billy is also very affectionate and will get along with children as well as with other dogs, provided that socialization starts as soon as possible.

Food and main health problems of the Billy

Until now, it has been relatively difficult to define the hereditary pathologies that affect the Billy. We know that his life expectancy is between 10 and 12 years. Like all dogs, he needs a balanced diet to live as long as possible in good health. Its meals are to be adapted according to its physical activities. During hunting season, they should contain proteins, fat, fibers and a vitamin E supplement.

The Portuguese Shepherd is a lively, loyal and affectionate dog

Pleasant to live with, lively, loyal and affectionate, one thing is certain: there is no lack of these qualities in the Portuguese Shepherd or Serra de Aires Dog. Behind its disheveled look lies an excellent working dog, but also a pleasant pet.

Characteristics of the Portuguese Shepherd Dog

When you think of the Shepherd Dog, you immediately think of the German Shepherd or the Australian Shepherd, marked by a very muscular body, a long muzzle and above all, short to medium-length hair. The Portuguese Shepherd is proof that not all shepherd dogs in the world are alike. Unlike its counterparts, this breed has a sublong physique and a medium size. The females measure between 42 and 52 cm and the males between 45 and 55 cm for a weight of 12 to 18kg. By its simian look, the Portuguese Shepherd is called "monkey dog" in its native country. It has a large head without being massive, an almost square skull and a pronounced stop. The eyes range from hazel to amber and are round and medium sized. They express softness and intelligence. The ears for their part are of a medium size, rounded and set high. The dog has long eyebrows, whiskers and beards. The hair is particularly distinctive of the Portuguese Shepherd. It is long, a little wavy and very dense. The coat can be yellow, brown, fawn, charcoal fawn or gray.

History of the Portuguese Shepherd Dog breed

The Portuguese Shepherd is said to come from the Alentejo region, located in the south of Portugal. Many rumors circulate about its true origins. It could be descended from the Pyrenean Shepherd with which it shares many similarities or the Catalan Shepherd. When the Romans arrived in Portugal, they would have brought back dogs that would have contributed to the birth of the breed. The Portuguese Shepherd Dog is used to guard and drive herds of horses, cattle, sheep and pigs. It received official recognition from the FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) in 1954.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Portuguese Shepherd Dog

Also known as the Serra de Aires Shepherd, the Portuguese Shepherd is a mischievous animal with a strong character. It is certainly not made for inexperienced masters, even if it remains relatively easy to educate. Moreover, this dog is always ready to obey orders and to please his master. It is a lively animal, strongly attached to its family, even if it can be a little clingy sometimes. He is loyal and exceptionally intelligent. He also gets along very well with children. In addition to his role as a companion dog, he performs brilliantly as a guard dog, as he is naturally suspicious and threatening towards strangers. It needs a lot of physical exercise and must live in a house with a garden.

Diet and main health problems of the Portuguese Shepherd

The Portuguese Shepherd is a very robust dog that can live up to 13 years. It tolerates icy and rough places as well as hot and dusty areas. As far as food is concerned, it is not a difficult animal. High quality kibbles will suffice.

The Westphalian Dachshund, a dynamic and lively little dog

He may be small, but that doesn't stop him from being dynamic and lively. The Westphalian Dachshund was originally used to catch game. Thanks to its gentleness and loyalty, it has become a popular family pet.

Characteristics of the Westphalian Dachshund

The Westphalian Dachshund is immediately recognizable by its small size. It is not more than 38 cm and 15 kg according to the standard requirements. Although it is small, this dog reveals a muscular and powerful body with a rather massive look. Its head of medium size reveals a noble aspect. It is elongated and rather narrow, with a slightly accentuated stop and a nose with a light-colored band in the middle. The Westphalian Dachshund has expressive dark eyes that reveal a mixture of seriousness and gentleness. At the top of the head, the ears are well laid back and of medium length. They end with rounded tips. As for the coat, the Westphalian Basset has a short to medium-length hair, rather rough and tight. The coat ranges from red to yellow and may have white markings or a black coat.

History of the Westphalian Basset

Not much is known about the origins of the Westphalian Basset. We know that it comes from Germany, from the eponymous region which is in the north. The breed has been talked about since the 17th century, mainly because of its success in the German royal courts. From the point of view of genetics, the Westphalian Dachshund is said to be the result of a cross between bassets like the Dachshund and the German Hound. A first recognition of the race is effective towards 1935, but it will be necessary to wait until 1950 so that the international recognition is official. If one hears very little about this dog in France, it is a little normal, because the breed is almost unknown outside its native country.

Living conditions and behavior of the Westphalian Dachshund

Due to its origins as a hunting dog, the Westphalian Dachshund is particularly energetic and dynamic. It is an animal with an exceptional sense of smell that allows it to easily track and catch its prey. The Westphalian Dachsbracke adapts to all types of hunting grounds and develops a fighting and courageous character. This dog also makes a wonderful pet because of its gentleness and affection. It is loyal to its masters and very obedient. However, it needs a firm education and a lot of physical exercise. Untiring, the Westphalian Basset wants to be constantly stimulated. It is not suitable for owners who are not very athletic.

Food and main problems of the Westphalian Dachshund

The Westphalian Dachsbracke has an iron health. The breed is not struck by any genetic defect so far. However, it is strongly advised to watch the possible appearance of ear infections at the level of their ears because of their drooping shape. As far as food is concerned, as this is an energetic dog, it needs the necessary caloric intake to be in good health.

My dog and my baby: what precautions should I take?

It is very important to ask yourself before the arrival of your baby at home about the precautions to take and the safety rules to follow so that the dog does not cause any problems. This question should be taken seriously because any negligence in this area can lead to bites. It is therefore well before the exit of the maternity that it is necessary to worry about it. Let's take stock of the situation so that your baby is safe despite the presence of a dog at home.

A baby at home: an event that can disturb the dog

While the dog was getting all the attention, now a little one is getting all the attention. The dog is likely to feel rejected if he has not been prepared for this arrival. Such negligence multiplies the risk of bites. This is why, a few weeks before the arrival of the baby, the owners must take the time to show the dog the space that will be reserved for the child and not to push the animal aside when they modify the layout of the house. It is also important to say the child's name often so that the dog will remember it.

The dog should feel included in this new life, but learn not to go into the baby's room alone, long before the child is born. When the baby finally arrives home, the parents should continue to spend time with their dog every day, playing games and taking turns going for a walk with him or her, not to mention petting the animal regularly and talking to it in a reassuring voice.

By showing the dog that he is still part of the family, the acclimatization will be much easier for him and will go smoothly.

Educate the dog as soon as possible

Training a dog of any breed - whether it's a small or large dog - should start within the first few weeks of the animal's life. This is much easier than when the dog is older and has developed all sorts of bad habits. This is absolutely necessary to make the cohabitation between the dog and the family members as harmonious as possible, even if the owners don't have children yet. Therefore, the earlier the dog is trained, the more it will be possible for him to accept the arrival of a baby at home.

The dog must obey different simple and basic commands. Sit, down, back to the basket, no jumping, are the basics. It is possible - and even highly recommended - to entrust the education of a dog to a dog trainer so that it can be done in the best conditions.

To each his own territory

The dog must not eat in the same room as his masters, nor sleep in their room or the child's room. He must know the limits of his territory very early on. He will understand this nuance all the better if the child learns to respect his dog's territory as well as his peace and quiet. The child should not bother the animal when it is eating or when it is quietly installed in its basket. Everyone should have a place and stick to it. However, the dog should never have the opportunity to feel superior to the child, or even to adults.

Never leave a baby alone with a dog

This seems obvious, yet not all parents are suspicious. Never leave a baby or young child alone with any dog, even if the animal is perfectly trained. A trained and sociable animal can bite out of misunderstanding, fear, irritation, jealousy, or because it is hurt somewhere.

Taking the dog in hand when a baby comes home is fundamental, but it is equally crucial to teach the child to behave well with his little companion as soon as he starts walking and afterwards. It is therefore advisable to teach him as soon as possible not to pull the tail and the ears of the dog, that one never wakes up his animal in startle, but also that a dog is not a pony! It is always possible that the gentlest of canines will one day rebel against the little man and the consequences can be dramatic.

Why does my dog eat his own poop? Explanation of coprophagia

Coprophagia is when a dog eats its own feces. This is quite normal in some cases, such as in the case of a bitch who is taking care of her newborn puppies. In other situations, coprophagia is abnormal and several causes are put forward to explain this behavioral disorder. What exactly is it and how should you react to your dog eating its own poop or the excrements of other animals?

What is coprophagia?

Coprophagia is the term used to describe a common and normal practice among many animals, including insects: eating their own excrement or that of other animals. It can also occur in puppies and bitches that have just given birth to their young, but in these cases, coprophagia is also quite normal.

On the other hand, it is considered abnormal if it is repetitive. Coprophagia can have a medical or behavioral origin.

Coprophagia: normal in the mother dog and in the puppies

There is no need to worry when a bitch eats her puppies' excrement. Indeed, after licking the perineum of each of her puppies to promote defecation, she eliminates their excrement by ingesting it to keep the sleeping area clean.

As for the puppies, they frequently eat their excrement without this being considered pathological. Let's not forget that they are discovering their environment and their first experiences are at the oral level. This attitude only lasts a few weeks at most.

My adult dog eats its own poop: the causes

Adult dogs can eat their own poop or that of other animals for a variety of reasons, including dietary, behavioral or medical.
  • Coprophagia in dogs due to food: dogs that eat too quickly and those that do not receive a quality diet tend to evacuate excrements that are still full of nutrients, or even pieces of undigested food. These animals are usually hungry and find their feces appetizing enough to eat.
  • Coprophagia in dogs of behavioral origin: lack of training, poor socialization, recurrent punishments, mistreatment, are all problems from which a dog can suffer. In adulthood, it is not surprising that he presents behavioral problems. Coprophagia can be an expression of one of these problems. In any case, there are countless behavioral causes of coprophagia in dogs, such as
    • A developmental disorder, especially when the puppy over 4 months of age has not been able to integrate certain self-controls,
    • Stress,
    • Hyperactivity,
    • Bulimia,
    • Boredom,
    • Fear, especially in dogs that have been violently punished following a potty training accident,
    • Aging: when an old dog (at the end of its life) eats its poop and at the same time becomes unclean and adopts certain behaviors of a puppy, we talk about involution depression. It is a kind of regression.
    • The smallness of the living space: dogs that are constantly locked in a tiny enclosure practice coprophagia to avoid living in their excrement.
  • Medical coprophagia in dogs: when the dog considers its feces as food, a medical cause is invoked because usually, the analysis of the droppings reveals a high concentration of undigested food. The origin of this digestion problem can be :
    • Amylase deficiency: when this enzyme is missing, the dog does not digest the starch found in certain foods. This is particularly the case with poor quality dry food (kibble). The dog's excrement contains a lot of starch and the animal eats it as if it were any other food.
    • Pancreatic insufficiency: this pathology leads to a poor absorption of nutrients and certain foods are not digested. They end up in the faeces without having been transformed. The dog therefore considers its excrement to be edible.
    • Chronic inflammation of the intestine or stomach: coprophagia is frequently promoted by digestive disorders such as intestinal problems and gastric problems.
    • Intestinal parasitosis: the presence of parasites in the intestines compromises the digestive process and the complete absorption of nutrients, which are eliminated in the dog's excrement,
    • A hormonal disorder,
    • A brain tumor...
It must be said that dogs rarely behave like this out of play, but this cannot be ruled out.

Is it dangerous for an adult dog to eat its own poop?

An adult dog that practices coprophagia runs the following risks:
  • Extremely foul-smelling breath,
  • A contamination by :
    • Fungi (mycotic contamination),
    • Parasites (parasitic contamination),
    • Viruses (viral contamination),
    • Bacteria (bacterial contamination).
If the excrement contains a contaminating agent, the coprophagous dog can become seriously ill, especially if it is already weakened by a health problem or if it is very old. The risk of pathology is also higher in a puppy of a few weeks old than in a healthy adult dog.

However, the risks of coprophagia should not be overlooked. That's why it's highly recommended to consult your veterinarian at the slightest alert. To remedy this behavior, it is obviously essential to identify the cause. The dog's owner must therefore be able to provide the veterinarian with all the information he or she deems useful in order to help him or her make a diagnosis.

Therapy is necessary when the cause of the coprophagia is behavioral and it can be completed by a drug treatment. If the cause is dietary, it is often sufficient to change the dog's diet, but this must be done in an insensitive manner. Of course, it is important to choose food of excellent nutritional quality and to make sure that the dog eats enough. Finally, the treatment of a medical coprophagia must include the treatment of the pathology in question after it has been clearly diagnosed.

The Appenzell Mountain Dog, working dog by excellence

 The Appenzell Mountain Dog is a very intelligent and lively Swiss Mountain Dog that can grow up in a family. We love him for his attentive and protective side towards children. But beware of those who want to be quiet. This big barker will not leave any place of peace.

Characteristics of the Appenzell Cattle Dog

The Appenzell Cattle Dog attracts attention with its harmonious proportions and square physique. It develops a marked musculature with straight, long and well balanced limbs. He inherits from the Bouviers his beautiful athletic body. On the other hand, a physical detail which differentiates him from his congeners concerns his tail. This one curls in a tight ring on the back rather than being carried hanging down. The Appenzell Cattle Dog has a cheerful expression that is highlighted by a flat skull, a powerful but not excessive muzzle, a slightly pronounced stop and a dark nose in tan and black dogs. The eyes, which can be light, dark or dark brown, are small and reveal an air of mischief. The ears for their part are in triangle, fall on the cheeks, but set high. The Appenzell Cattle Dog has a firm, short and shiny coat that is tricolored. The coat is black and tan with white and tan markings.

History of the Appenzell Cattle Dog breed

Belonging to the large family of the Swiss Mountain Dogs in the same way as the Entlebuch Mountain Dog, the Bernese Mountain Dog or the Great Swiss Mountain Dog, the Appenzell Mountain Dog is a rare and confidential breed. Like its congeners, it descends from the Tibetan Mastiff. We will really know him from 1853, when he is mentioned in the book "Tierleben der Alpenwelt" by Friedrich von Tschudi. Several decades later, Max Sieber, a master forester, decided to do what was necessary to prevent the breed from disappearing. He asked the Swiss Kennel Club to help him. The breed became so successful that in 1906 the Swiss Appenzell Cattle Dog Club was founded.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Appenzell Cattle Dog

The Appenzell Cattle Dog is a bold, self-confident and remarkably lively dog. It has a strong character, but is very loyal to its owners. He is also full of joy of living and always attentive. He is a good companion for children and will be happy to accompany them on walks. The Appenzell Cattle Dog can very well take on the role of guard dog thanks to its courage and its distrustful nature towards strangers. And as he likes to bark, he will warn his owners in time in case of intrusion in the house. However, in order for his barking not to become a source of annoyance, he must be taught to control himself as soon as possible.

Diet and main health problems of the Appenzell Mountain Dog

The Appenzell Mountain Dog is a hardy and robust dog. It is not subject to any predisposition to diseases. Good news for the owners. To maintain its good health, it needs a healthy and balanced diet.

The Atlas Shepherd or Aïdi, a devoted dog

How not to crack in front of his look of pépère? The Atlas Shepherd gives off a lot of sweetness although in reality, it has a strong character. This dog will enjoy living in a family, especially if it is composed of children, because it will enjoy spending time with them. Better, he will protect them at the risk of his life.

Characteristics of the Shepherd of the Atlas

The Shepherd of the Atlas also known under the name of Aïdi, Berber term meaning "dog", is an animal of rather average size between 52 and 62 cm for a weight going from 25 to 30 kg. It has a rather vigorous body with a powerful bone structure and a developed musculature. The Atlas Shepherd is strong and lively. It is recognizable by its head of conical appearance, strong and harmoniously proportioned, entirely devoid of wrinkles. The skull is broad and flat and the stop not very accentuated. The Aidi reveals dark, medium-sized eyes that allow him to have a keen sense of observation while expressing vivacity. The ears with round tips are also of medium size and fall slightly. As for the coat, it is medium long, rough and thick. The coat can be fawn, brown or black.

History of the breed Berger de l'Atlas

The Aidi is an ancient breed that would be a close relative of the Yugoslavian Shepherd, the mountain dog of the Pyrenees and the Anatolian Akbash. It would be originating from Africa, more specifically from the Moroccan Atlas Mountains. Although it is named "Shepherd of the Atlas", its primary function was not to herd cattle, but rather to protect the tents and homes of nomadic shepherds. He also excelled at hunting foxes, boars and jackals. Unlike many other breeds, the Aidi has not undergone much physical change over the centuries. Today, the breed is rare outside its native country. Moreover, many canine authorities still do not recognize it officially.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Atlas Shepherd

The Aidi is known for showing affection and for its unfailing loyalty. He is able to protect his family against any danger and that, sometimes in an excessive way. He shows vigilance and courage. With him, one feels fully safe. This dog also has an independent character even if he remains deeply attached to his masters. It has a temperament and likes to bark, which is not ideal for those who live in apartments. To channel him, this dog must enjoy a firm education that neutralizes his character, a bit wild. It also needs to evolve in large spaces to be able to release its energy.

Food and main health problems of the Atlas Shepherd

The Atlas Shepherd does not develop any specific pathology. It is a robust dog whose life expectancy goes from 10 to 11 years. On the other hand, it is advised to watch the possible appearance of a dysplasia of the hip. Concerning its food, it is enough that it is rich in vitamins and nutrients to ensure its good development. In case of industrial food, give priority to the best quality.

Colostrum: how important is it for the puppy?

At birth, the puppy acquires the immunity necessary for its survival during the first hours thanks to the colostrum given to it by its mother through breastfeeding. What is this "first milk" and why is it so important for the newborn puppy? Are there alternatives?

What is colostrum?

Colostrum, a yellow to whitish-yellow liquid, is the "first milk" that a mammalian mother gives to her pup in the first few hours after birth. Colostrum is the first source of immunoglobulins after birth, so it fills the immune gap of the newborn. These proteins play a vital role in defending the body against bacterial and parasitic aggression.

They are certainly transmitted to the fetus during intrauterine life by the placenta, but only in infinitesimal doses, in the order of only 5% of systemic immunity in dogs. Immunoglobulins (Ig) are antibody-rich substances that are essential for the survival of the young. They are a barrier to pathogens and prevent them from binding to cells. Fortunately, colostrum is well supplied with them, since it provides nearly 95% of the immune system's needs. It is therefore the most important natural defense solution for the puppy and, more generally, for all mammals at birth.

Colostrum is also involved in :
  • Digestive immunity and the maturation of the digestive tract,
  • The contribution of essential elements to the growth of the puppy,
  • The protection of the newborn puppy against hypothermia.

Colostrum: the first hours of a puppy's life

As soon as he is born, the puppy must be suckled by his mother. It is only during the first 24 hours after birth that the passage of immunoglobulins into the bloodstream is possible due to intestinal permeability, because at that time the level of digestive enzymes is extremely low. It is therefore essential that the puppy has access to his mother's teats to suckle the colostrum. Colostrum is accumulated by the mammary glands but its secretion is very short-lived - 24 to 72 hours postpartum (after whelping). After that, the colostrum is replaced by the mother's milk.

If the puppy doesn't suckle the colostrum, he won't have this incredible immune protection because his body is unable to produce antibodies.

No colostrum for the puppy: what to do?

In some cases, a newborn puppy can't benefit from colostrum. The most common situations are as follows:
  • The puppy is too weak to reach the mother's nipples or the litter is too large,
  • The bitch rejects her puppies and does not let them suckle,
  • The bitch is dead at whelping.
If the puppy is too weak, the master can help him to reach the teats. If the mother rejects her puppies, it is then necessary to collect her colostrum as soon as possible to give it to the puppies by means of adapted and perfectly sterilized bottles since the puppies are not yet immunized. To keep all its benefits, colostrum must be kept in the best conditions. It can even be frozen.

If the puppies are orphaned, it is essential to opt for a substitute feeding. You should buy a colostrum milk supplement adapted to the puppy. It is a fundamental antimicrobial and immuno-protective food that can also be given to newborn canine puppies in case of lactation pathology in their mother for example.

Knowing the importance of colostrum for puppies, an owner must take care to do everything possible to ensure that his bitch is in perfect health. To prevent her from passing on poor quality colostrum, it is imperative that she be given a complete diet throughout her pregnancy, suitable for females expecting puppies. But it is just as important during lactation.

My dog is aggressive with humans: why? How to solve the problem?

A dog's aggressiveness towards humans is extremely problematic because the consequences can be serious. It is therefore urgent to react so that the animal's behavior can be improved so that it stops being a danger. And to find the best solutions for the animal, it is essential to start by understanding how the dog became aggressive because it is not innate. Has he been bullied? Is he in physical pain? Is it irritated? Is he trying to defend something or someone? Let's discover the main reasons why a dog may be aggressive towards humans and the most effective ways to solve this type of problem.

How does a dog become aggressive?

Aggression in dogs is not acquired at birth, but it is established little by little, according to its life history. Here are the main events that can lead to aggressive behavior in a dog, regardless of its breed.

Mistreatment: masters who do not love their pet and scorn it at all times or brutalize it generate fear. The dog is worried, even hyper-anxious, and the anxiety caused by certain situations makes it aggressive because it is the only solution for it to manage this type of situation. When a dog is afraid, its reaction is not preemptive: it is instantaneous, which is very dangerous for its victim who does not have time to take cover.

Irritation: many situations can generate irritation in a dog. Forcing him to do something against his will can make him aggressive after a while. Aggression following an exacerbation is common in dogs that are confronted with children who are heckling or screaming. And even if these animals show warning signs, the children usually do not know how to interpret them and this is how they get bitten, sometimes seriously.

The need to defend her puppies: This is the case with bitches who take care of their puppies. They are constantly watching over their litter and may attack a human who gets too close to the puppies. In a nursing bitch, a human can be a direct danger to her offspring or to herself. She therefore automatically becomes aggressive because she has no other way to react.

A health problem: a sick dog can become aggressive. This is particularly the case if he is in pain, if he regularly has a high fever, i.e. higher than 39°C, which can lead to the suspicion of an infectious focus. Aggressive behavior can also be found in a dog with a hormonal dysfunction and of course when he is suffering from a form of dementia. In these cases, veterinary care is necessary. The professional must first examine the animal and then submit it to various complementary examinations in order to identify the health problem at the origin of this aggressiveness.

Defense of its territory: it is mostly dogs trained to stand guard that show aggression towards unknown or known humans but who exceed certain limits. The animal is only doing its duty. They may attack after giving warning signals.

Predatory instinct: This is the type of situation that can be found in a primitive dog or in a dog that hunts for food. In some herding dogs that have not been properly trained, aggressive behavior towards humans can be found in the same way that they would be with the animals they are supposed to watch over.

Dog Aggression: It's Never Too Late to Act

The first thing to do is to solve the problem of communication between humans and dogs. Indeed, in the vast majority of cases, a dog warns - in his own way - when a situation does not suit him. He expresses his discomfort or irritation by theoretically explicit signs, but some humans do not understand this type of language and persist. It is only then that the animal becomes aggressive. It is therefore important to be observant and to stop imposing on a dog a situation that exasperates him. Signs may include growling, ear position (lying backwards), tail tucked between the hind legs, curled up lips, repeated and rapid licking of the nose...

Aggression in a dog is often the expression of a reaction to a disturbing situation, to an emotional shock. A dog is generally not aggressive by nature, contrary to popular belief. On the other hand, it can become aggressive if it is poorly educated, if it is not socialized or if it has been badly handled by a brutal, incomprehensible, not very patient master or simply one who does not respect his animal. Finally, a malaise as in the case of disease, or even physical and/or psychological suffering, often leads to mood disorders in dogs, as is the case with humans.

Aggressive dog towards humans: what solutions?

The first step is to identify the cause of the aggression and then learn to decode the warning signals in order to better understand them. As a general rule, the dog seeks to avoid conflict, so it warns that a given situation does not suit it.

Then, you must establish a relationship of trust with the dog based above all on respect. A lack of trust makes the animal feel insecure. Similarly, misunderstanding can destabilize the dog and end up making it aggressive towards its owner or another human. It is therefore necessary to be constant in its demands but also coherent and patience is essential. This way, the dog can assimilate the rules that you want to teach him.

Attention, any socialization or re-socialization session implies that the animal is muzzled. This gives the trainer confidence, which has a positive impact on the dog's emotional state. It is also important to establish a routine because it is soothing, and to take care to always reassure him. Never go too fast is the rule because you must give the dog time to become familiar with the object of his fear. It is equally important to teach him the basic rules little by little, without rushing, in order to reach a satisfactory level of obedience.

It is also essential to allow a dog to exercise so that he can externalize his aggressiveness. Leaving your pet locked up in a tiny kennel all the time encourages unstable behavior.

We understand that it is totally unconscious not to intervene with an aggressive dog under the pretext that he is an adult and that we cannot change anything. On the contrary, it is always possible and in any case absolutely necessary to modify his behavior. Whatever his breed (and therefore his size) he can bite and become very dangerous towards an adult human but even more so towards a child. Before it is too late, every owner must prevent his dog's aggressiveness by educating him. If he thinks he does not have the ability to do so, he should entrust the education of his dog to an experienced dog trainer.