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The Majorca Mastiff (Ca de Bou), a dog with a strong corpulence

In spite of its strong and thick corpulence, the Majorca Mastiff also called Ca de Bou remains a pleasant and benevolent dog that will be protective towards families. His physique remains an impressive deterrent. But deep down, it is a docile and gentle animal.

Characteristics of the Majorca Mastiff Dog

The Ca de Bou has a physics peculiar to molossoids. Medium in size, it develops a powerful grip and releases strength and energy. It measures between 52 and 58 cm and weighs between 30 and 38 kg depending on the sex. This breed is immediately recognizable by its massive and powerful head that fits into a square. The stop is accentuated. Jaws with strong bone structure are accompanied by a crushed muzzle, but without exaggeration. The Ca de Bou has large oval shaped eyes that are set quite low and are dark in color. At the level of the ears, they are placed on the sides and set high. Their shape is slightly reminiscent of a rose. This dog has a short and dense coat. The coat can be black, fawn or brindle. The dog may also have a black mask and white markings on the feet, muzzle and chest.

History of the Majorca Mastiff Dog breed

This dog has ancient origins since its existence dates back to the 18th century. It is said to have originated from the crossbreeding of English bulldogs brought by the British to the Balearic Islands as well as Spanish Mastiffs that were introduced to the area in the Middle Ages. The dog was first used as a fighting dog. By his strength, he was confronted with bulls as well as other dogs. He also made a career as an auxiliary to butchers who needed their herds to be watched over and, above all, the cattle to be immobilized; a task that the Majorca Mastiff Dog did to perfection by biting with his powerful jaw. The officialization of the breed will take place in 1932. The Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) will officially recognize it in 1963.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Majorca Mastiff

The Majorca Mastiff Dog has definitively said goodbye to its past as a fighting dog, which it has now traded for a pet title. He is an excellent guardian and a very protective being who will look after his masters. He appreciates children and develops a lot of patience towards them. He is a dog that shows calm, docility and kindness. On the other hand, he is not at ease with strangers and fellow dogs. Even if it is not a difficult dog, it needs a good basis of education and early socialization. In addition, he is not really suited to living in an apartment and will prefer a house with a fenced garden where he will enjoy more freedom. Finally, as it is not a sporting dog, there is no need to program a lot of physical exercise. Regular walks with his owners will suffice.

Diet and main health problems of the Majorca Mastiff Dog

The Majorca Mastiff can be subject to elbow and hip dysplasia. His joints should be spared to avoid any problems frequently encountered in heavy dogs. Overweight dogs should be watched. A balanced and varied diet will avoid excessive weight gain.

The Border Terrier, the most hardy of all terrier dogs

Considered the most rustic of the burrows, the Border Terrier is distinguished by its head which reminds that of the otter. Originally a hunting dog, the Border Terrier has evolved into an attentive and gentle pet that will cherish its owners forever.

Characteristics of the Border Terrier

Working terrier, the Border Terrier is "cut" to carry out its missions. He has a clear pace that allows him to run a horse. It is a small size dog measuring between 33 and 40 cm for a weight of 5 to 7 kg. He stands out by his tall, long and narrow body which is full of grace. The Border Terrier has a broad head often likened to that of the otter. The nose is black, the jaws are arranged in scissors and the muzzle is strong and short. The eyes reveal an expressive and lively look as well as a crisp look with their dark color. Tending to fall forward, the ears are small, not too thick and represent a "V". The Border Terrier has a short, dense and harsh coat. The coat can be of various colors: wheaten, red, blue and tan, grayish and tan .

Border Terrier Breed History

The Border Terrier is native to the border between England and Scotland. He comes more specifically from the Borders region where he excelled as a hunting dog to catch foxes and where he worked with the Foxhound. Thanks to his small size, he could easily enter the burrows, hence his success. In the 19th century, he was also appreciated as a herdsman and worked on farms. Historically, the Border Terrier would be a descendant of the British Working Terriers including the Lakeland Terrier, the Bedlington Terrier as well as the Dandie Dinmont Terrier. The official recognition by the FCI (Fédération cynologique internationale) goes back to 1963. It will be necessary to wait the Eighties before this race is made known in France.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Border Terrier

Full of energy, the Border Terrier shines by its endurance and courage. He has all the talents sought after in a working dog. Nevertheless, he remains a family-friendly pet. They are attached to their owners and show a lot of affection towards them. Being dynamic and always in search of action, he will bring joy and excitement to play with children. On the other hand, they develop a strong personality and can be stubborn. A character that we must try to correct through an adapted education. Another thing: as he is a born hunter, he can be belligerent towards small animals that he considers as targets.

Diet and main health problems of the Border Terrier

The Border Terrier is a robust dog that can live up to 12 years with the best care and especially with a healthy and balanced diet. Even if it is true that it is not difficult, it is better to offer him premium quality kibbles to guarantee him an iron constitution. Note that the Border Terrier is not predisposed to any hereditary disease.

Joy in the dog: how does a happy dog behave?

There are many manifestations of joy in dogs. Whether the animal shows overflowing affection or pees everywhere as soon as it is happy, its signs of joy must be welcomed with deference by its masters. In any case, all that is needed to know if your dog is happy or not is to pay attention to his behaviour. Being able to identify the different reactions of his dog is essential to offer him the best living conditions. This helps him to grow up and protect him from boredom, stress, obesity and related diseases.

How do I know if my dog is happy?

This is one of the fundamental questions when you own a dog. Making sure that he is happy is in any case a sign of deep respect for his pet. Depending on his age, sex and even breed, the manifestations of joy in the dog differ. Thus, the happy animal is generally :
  • Predisposed to play,
  • More patient,
  • Quiet outside of playtime.
Younger dogs can urinate wherever they are as soon as they are happy .

A happy dog :
  • Benefits from a better sleep,
  • Eat well,
  • Shows no signs of aggression - or at least only when it is perfectly justified. This is the case, for example, if the master is threatened or if a stranger enters the property without having been invited to do so .
  • Does not bark without reason (or very little),
  • Loves to share long moments with his masters and even with their friends,
  • Flees isolation,
  • Seems to seek without limit the contact of people,
  • Willingly accepts to go for a walk at any time,
  • Is more conciliatory and less disobedient than a dog experiencing frustrations.
Finally, the dog that thrives in a joyful atmosphere has a relatively high level of docility.

How to make a dog happy?

This is a crucial question that all owners should ask themselves as soon as they welcome a dog into their family. It is indeed important that the animal is surrounded by good care and receives sufficient attention to develop in the best conditions. Finally, it is not very complicated to make your dog happy. You simply have to love your animal and show common sense. To do so, you must start by fulfilling his most basic needs by making sure he has :
  • A healthy place to sleep,
  • A perfectly balanced and adapted diet because it must meet all its daily nutritional needs,
  • Always clean water at will,
  • Regular body care such as brushing, showering, etc..,
  • Preventive treatments against parasites (ticks, fleas, worms, etc.),
  • Loving masters who give him some time for his daily life.
The good idea is also to let your dog have access to daily exercises and games in the form of agility courses, nature walks or swimming, depending on what he prefers.

This is the time to remember that dog training also has a positive impact on the dogs' living conditions. Many masters have understood this. Some who do not feel able to train their little companion - or who lack time - choose to entrust the training of their dog to a professional. Be careful, training does not mean training to attack! This has absolutely nothing to do with it. The goal is not to condition the animal to be mean, but to instill in it everything that can make it more sociable and therefore happier.

Exercise, again and again: a guarantee of the dog's physical and mental health.

Exercise is conducive to maintaining the physical and mental health of the animal, whether it is a small or giant breed dog. It's just a matter of proportioning the effort according to the animal's abilities, age, level of training and experience. Regardless of the type of dog, the active dog is less likely to become obese and, consequently, to suffer from an inherent pathology of being overweight.

Physical exercise is just as beneficial for his cognitive functions. When the dog is active almost every day, his mind is indeed perfectly stimulated. This develops his concentration and thinking skills. Moreover, a very active dog is much more sociable than an animal that is always alone and is not taken care of, or that the owner attaches to a stake all day long.

Happier dog in the company of another animal

Some dogs are happier if they can spend time with another animal, especially when their owner and family members are away from work, school, high school or college, or even on a business trip for several days.

From a very young age, you can get your dog used to the company of a fellow dog, pony, horse, sheep, even a dwarf rabbit or even a cat, because dogs and cats are not necessarily the greatest enemies in the world, far from it! This allows the dog to share games throughout the day and therefore, not to get bored. Loneliness is one of the worst scourges for a living being. Canids are no exception to the rule.

A dog that is well cared for medically is happier.
As long as the dog evolves in a pleasant environment and his owners give him the affection and attention he has a right to expect, a regular follow-up by a veterinarian helps to increase his chances of being happy. Indeed, this monitoring allows the animal to benefit from an adapted treatment if necessary and therefore, not to suffer or be handicapped by one pathology or another. Finally, as is the case in humans, a good state of health conditions the dog's ability to be happy.

Even if the owner does not have a sufficient budget to finance one health check-up per year and several visits to the veterinarian, this health surveillance is quite possible. All you need to do is to insure your dog with a complementary health insurance for pets. Three or four levels of guarantees are offered so that everyone can choose the one that perfectly meets the needs of their dog without suffocating the household budget. To find out more, simply study the offers thanks to a dog health insurance comparator.

If you have the slightest doubt about your dog's physical and mental balance, don't hesitate to consult a veterinarian, or even a behaviourist veterinarian. This allows you to take all precautions in case you have neglected your animal a little.

At the same time, owners who are very busy professionally and who do not have time to devote to their dog every day, can hire the services of a qualified dog sitter or dog walker. The operation has a cost, communicated only on quotation according to the age of the dog, its breed, the geographical area, the daily duration of the service, etc. But this sometimes unavoidable expense can really change the life of a dog suffering from boredom or loneliness.

The English Pointer, a real hunting dog

King of the hunt, the English Pointer has the looks and talents needed to fully assume this role. Powerful and athletic, the English Pointer is an intelligent, early learning dog that is easy to train. He is also perfect as a pet because of his demonstrative character, his affection and his docility.

Characteristics of the English Pointer

Having a physiognomy of the medio-linear type, the English Pointer has a body inscribed in a square which reveals power and a marked musculature. The males measure between 63 and 69 cm and the females are about 66 cm and weigh between 20 and 30 kg all sexes. The English Pointer has a broad skull doubled with a stop accentuated whose length is equivalent to that of the muzzle.

It is precisely distinguished by this muzzle which curves like a trumpet. The round eyes are large, very expressive and have a dark ochre color. The ears have rounded tips and are set high. They are of medium size and are supple and fine. The English Pointer has a short, shiny, smooth, but hard coat. The coat is generally bicolor. It has a white tone with orange, lemon, black or brown notes. The standard can also tolerate tricolored or even unicolored dresses.

History of the breed English Pointer

Contrary to what one might think, the English Pointer does not originate directly from England, but rather from Spain. Its ancestor would have as ancestor the Spanish Pointer. It was then imported to England where breeders started breeding programs. The Pointer was notably crossed with the English Foxhound to gain in elegance and lightness since it was too heavy to adapt to the English hunting methods. It is very appreciated in hunting thanks to its faculty of "pointer" (it lies down on the belly to indicate the presence of game). In 1891, an English Pointer club was even created in the face of the breed's success.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the English Pointer

Agile and powerful, the English Pointer is distinguished by its speed, endurance and exceptional flair, which is why it wins the favor of all game bird hunters. At the same time, it is also a perfect pet because it is a calm, considerate, docile and loyal dog. He is very affectionate towards his masters and devotes himself to them with true devotion. It is a dog without aggressiveness and very sociable. His origins as a hunting dog oblige, he needs to spend himself to the maximum. A sedentary life is certainly not for him.

Diet and main health problems of the English Pointer

If it is involved in hunting activities, the English Pointer can be affected by ear infections or parasites causing inflammation in the ears. Retinal problems can also occur as well as eyelid curling. Besides, it is a robust dog that does not suffer from hereditary diseases. His good health will be assured thanks to a rich diet, adapted to his energy expenditure.

The Rhodesian Ridgeback or Ridgeback Dog

With a harmonious and powerful body, the Rhodesian Ridgeback, also called Rhodesian Ridgeback Dog, fascinates by its imposing physique and by this dorsal ridge that gives it a most original look. Behind all this vigor lies a gentle, calm and affectionate animal.

Characteristics of the Rhodesian Ridgebacked Hound

With a strong, balanced and agile construction, the Rhodesian Ridgeback attracts attention with its large size. The females have a height between 61 and 66 cm and weigh an average of 32 kg while the males measure between 63 and 69 kg at the withers and weigh around 36.5 kg. The body is longer than it is tall, robust and powerful with a full and low chest and arched ribs. Its particularity is that it has a dorsal ridge from the shoulder to the hip which is formed by hair growing in the opposite direction of the rest of the coat. The animal reveals a harmonious head with a deep and long muzzle with a relatively accentuated stop. The Rhodesian Ridgeback reveals a beautiful, intelligent and vivacious look through its bright, round, amber-colored eyes that are in harmony with the coat. The ears are medium sized and carried high. As for the coat, it is short, shiny, smooth and dense. The coat can be fawn, red wheat or light wheat.

History of the breed Rhodesian Ridged Dorsal Ridged Dog

The Rhodesian Ridgeback gets its wild look from its African origins. It comes from southern Africa and is believed to be descended from various primitive canine varieties and is also a descendant of the ridgeback hound bred by the pastoral peoples of southern Africa called the Khoikhois. This animal is ancient as it was known as early as the 18th century. It is only from the 1920s that it developed in Zimbabwe. Initially, it was used in the hunting of big game such as the lion thanks to its excellent endurance and its very fast speed. It was not until 1955 that the breed was officially recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI).

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Rhodesian Ridgeback

Hunting dog, companion dog, guard dog, the Rhodesian Ridgeback can take on many roles. He can perfectly evolve within families because he is both loyal and faithful. It is a pleasant animal that wants to be involved in all family activities and is never reluctant to go and play with the children. It is intelligent, independent, close and very affectionate towards its masters. To be happy, this dog must be able to move, run and exercise. Too sedentary owners are therefore not suited for him.

Nutrition and main health problems of the Rhodesian Ridgeback

The Rhodesian Ridgeback is a vigorous animal. However, it is not spared by certain diseases specific to large dogs such as hip dysplasia. It can also be affected by congenital skin infections such as dermoid sinus. His diet should be as balanced as possible. Asking advice from veterinarians is de rigueur on this subject.

Why is my dog vomiting?

Vomiting is common in dogs, especially older dogs and puppies. Often without consequence, it can in some cases be a symptom of a serious illness or even poisoning. When the dog vomits several times and shows other abnormal signs, it is better to consult a veterinarian without delay in order to know the exact cause and to avoid dehydration of the animal at all costs. If necessary, an adapted treatment will be prescribed. Let's take stock of the different causes of vomiting in dogs, the risks that it can cause, the possible treatments and preventive actions.

Vomiting in dogs: the main causes

There is no need to worry if the dog vomits immediately after eating. In greedy dogs that eat very quickly, vomiting is very common. Once the overflow is eliminated, everything is put back in order until the animal eats again. But the dog may vomit for a much more serious cause such as :
  • An abrupt change of diet,
  • Food poisoning or poisoning,
  • Ingestion of a foreign body or inedible food,
  • Stress,
  • A food allergy,
  • Medication, if the dog :
    • is undergoing treatment with penicillin, corticosteroids or Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs),
    • takes drugs intended for humans.
  • Gastroenteritis,
  • IBD or Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease,
  • Motion sickness,
  • Kidney failure,
  • Liver disease,
  • A neurological pathology,
  • Pancreatitis,
  • A stomach ulcer,
  • A twisting of the stomach,
  • A disease of bacterial origin,
  • An infectious disease,
  • Some cancers.
At the slightest doubt, the veterinarian can ask for additional tests such as a blood test, an X-ray, an ultrasound, a CT scan, a biopsy... Expensive procedures but at least partially covered by the pet health insurance, if the dog is of course insured.

Be careful not to confuse vomiting and regurgitation. These do not require violent effort unlike vomiting. It is therefore easy to distinguish the two. Regurgitation is often linked to an esophageal problem. If they recur frequently, they also justify a consultation with the veterinarian, if possible within a short period of time.

Vomiting in the dog: signs that should alert

Emergency consultation with a veterinarian is required if the dog vomits and at the same time presents one or more of the following symptoms:
  • Bloody or suspicious and foul-smelling vomit,
  • Diarrhoea,
  • Apathy or on the contrary very great agitation,
  • Aggressiveness,
  • Loss of appetite,
  • Pain,
  • Prostration.
It is essential that the origin of the vomiting be identified so that the veterinarian can make a diagnosis and set up the appropriate care protocol.

Preventing vomiting in dogs

When you have a voracious dog that throws himself on his food and therefore frequently vomits after eating, it is necessary to change certain habits and adopt the right gestures to stop this phenomenon (not serious in this case). For example :
  • Reduce the food portion, even if it means splitting each meal into several portions spread over the day. By absorbing a smaller quantity of food at a time, the animal reduces its food bowl. As his digestion goes smoothly, the dog no longer vomits.
  • To put the dog on a diet for a period not exceeding three days, giving him only water to avoid any risk of dehydration.
  • Make sure the dog swallows less air by sucking in air when eating. To do this, simply replace a hollow bowl with a flat one.
  • Make sure that the dog eats alone and not in company of other animals: this limits the risk of instinctive competition. Isolated from his fellow dogs, the dog eats more calmly, without stress and digests better.
  • Encourage the dog to rest for three hours after eating. Many working dogs resume their activities immediately after eating, which encourages vomiting.
Of course, daily supervision is necessary, especially for dogs that regularly take the powder puff. During these solitary walks, they eat a little of what they find, even if it is not always edible. Many dogs, even well fed by their owners, do not hesitate to eat everything they find in the garbage! For a few days, the owner may try to prevent his dog from leaving the property boundaries in order to observe him more easily.

Vomiting dog: what treatment should be considered?

There is no single treatment for vomiting in dogs, but there are several. The veterinarian prescribes the appropriate medication for the pathology causing the vomiting if it is due to a disease. The challenge is to cure the animal.

In an emergency, an injection can be given to stop the vomiting because it leads to dehydration with serious consequences for the dog's health. Moreover, when a dog vomits a lot and frequently, he can be hospitalized to be placed on an infusion. What must be avoided is the loss of minerals due to abundant vomiting. Hospitalization may therefore be the first solution even before the origin of the dog's vomiting has been diagnosed.

Once out of the hospital, the dog enters the convalescence phase. During this variable period - it is the veterinarian who determines the duration -, it is the responsibility of the animal's owners to give it highly digestible food, to banish excessively fatty meals, to split its food portion, and to keep the dog calm, especially after its meals. It is also necessary to ensure that the animal drinks enough water throughout the day. Regular visits to the veterinarian must be observed so that the dog is perfectly supervised.

The Alaskan Klee Kai, a miniature version of the Husky dog

You always dreamed of adopting a Siberian Husky but unfortunately because of its large size, you were always forced to give up the idea? With the Alaskan Klee Kai, you will now be able to make your dreams come true. This miniature version of the Husky will make you happy.

Characteristics of the Alaskan Klee Kai

Its small size makes more than one crack. The Alaskan Klee Kai resembles its ascendant, the Siberian Husky. Except that it measures only between 33 and 42 cm for a weight ranging from 4 to 11 kg. The breed comes in three varieties: the Toy, the Miniature and the Standard. The canid has a medium-long coat, well furnished and double with a dense undercoat, but soft to the touch. In general, the coat is bicolor with white as a base. The coat can be grey and white or black and white. On the other hand, the dog must reveal the traditional markings of the Nordic dog and wear a mask. The Alaskan Klee Kai has a pointed muzzle like that of a fox with black lips and nose. The almond shaped eyes are medium in size. The ears are carried high, erect and lined with hair.

History of the Alaskan Klee Kai breed

Originally from Alaska, the Alaskan Klee Kai was born in the 1970s. He was born under the impulse of the American breeder Linda S. Spurlin who aspired to obtain a Husky, but in miniature version. Several crosses were therefore made between the Siberian Husky, American eskimo dogs or Schipperkes, the whole being to obtain a dog of reduced size without dwarfism. It is only in 1988 that the first specimens were officially presented by the breeder. The Alaskan Klee Kai remains relatively rare not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world. For the moment, it has not yet been officially recognized by the Central Canine Society nor by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI).

Necessary living conditions and behaviour of the Alaskan Klee Kai

Do not rely on its small size. The Alaskan Klee Kai may be small, but one thing is certain: he has a temperament. He is a real ball of tireless energy that will make children happy. However, children must learn to respect him and avoid pushing or teasing him. He can quickly become annoyed. Very alert, this dog is also curious and affectionate towards his family. On the other hand, he will have reservations about strangers. Like all Nordic dogs, the Alaskan Klee Kai is a predator. It is difficult to live with small animals and cats. One of its advantages is that it can live in an apartment as long as it gets a lot of daily exercise.

Diet and main health problems of Alaskan Klee Kai

Alaskan Klee Kai can develop certain pathologies such as hemophilia, heart malformation or thyroid problems. Eye disorders are not to be ruled out either. As it is an active and dynamic dog, it must absolutely enjoy a rich diet without being excessive because it is a dog predisposed to being overweight.

The Presa Canario, an imposing dog

The imposing size of the Presa Canario is a deterrent. Even if he is not aggressive, his physique allows him to fully assume his role as a guard dog. Powerful, agile, it is an animal that impresses more than one. He can also be an excellent companion dog, faithful, calm and devoted.

Characteristics of the Presa Canario

The Presa Canario is a majestic animal distinguished by a muscular body and a developed bone structure. This large dog of molossoid type forces respect with its height at the withers of 61 and 66 cm in males for an approximate weight of 65 kg. The females are also impressive as they have a height at the withers of 56 to 62 cm for a weight varying between 40 and 55 kg. They are longer than the males. This dog develops a compact, massive, broad head, with a brachycephalic appearance and marked by powerful jaws.

Of medium size, the eyes are oval shaped and have a dark brown color. The medium sized ears are set wide apart and drop at the base. The Presa Canario can be recognized by the black mask covering its muzzle. A peculiarity of this dog, regardless of the coat. The latter can be brindle or fawn, in all kinds of shades. The base of the neck and the chest reveal white markings. As for the coat, it is short, rustic and without undercoat.

History of the Presa Canario

The Presa Canario is a symbol in Gran Canaria where it originates. It is a Spanish island located off the Atlantic Ocean and included in the Canary Islands. This breed is ancient since it is mentioned as early as the 16th century. On its native island, it was mainly used as a fighting dog. The Presa Canario is believed to be a cross between the Bardino, also native to the Spanish island of Fuerteventura, some molossoids and the mastiff. This dog almost disappeared after the prohibition of fighting. Its official recognition only dates from 2011.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Presa Canario

After a long career as a fighting dog, the Great Dane is nowadays a working and guard dog. But he is also an excellent companion dog. He will ardently protect his family and can evolve with children thanks to his calm and peaceful temperament. It is a devoted and balanced animal that is very distrustful of strangers. The latter can become frightened because of the animal's very serious barking. Another thing: the Presa Canario needs a lot of physical exercise and will enjoy running for a long time. Therefore, it only adapts itself to sporting masters.

Diet and main health problems of the Presa Canario

The Great Dane is a robust dog that is not afraid of humidity or cold. He has a very long growth which only ends after the 30th month. Like large dogs, it can be prone to hip dysplasia. Skin diseases such as demodecic scabies should be watched for. The same goes for epilepsy or osteoporosis.

The Saarloos Wolfdog, a wolf in a dog's body

A wolf in a dog's body is what characterizes the Saarloos Wolfdog. This wild, powerful and muscular looking breed impresses by its physique. Beyond that, it is a trustworthy and faithful animal that plays its role as a companion dog wonderfully.

Characteristics of the Saarloos Wolfdog

The Saarlos Wolfdog is a large, tall, leggy animal that is especially distinguished by its powerful bones, yet without any heaviness. It has an imposing, muscular and harmonious body and measures between 60 and 70 cm for females and 65 to 75 cm for males with a weight of 30 to 45 kg depending on the sex. This breed resembling the wolf develops a broad and flat skull with a harmonious size and constitution in comparison to the body.

The almond-shaped eyes are yellow in color, a characteristic that recalls that of the wild animal. His gaze is reserved, attentive, but without fear. The ears are triangular and have rounded tips. They are placed at eye level. In addition, the Saarlos Wolfdog reveals a beautiful coat that can have different colors: light beige, gray, white, dark brown ... The coat depends on the seasons. In summer, the top coat is denser. And in winter, it is the undercoat which is more important and becomes abundant with the top coat.

History of the Saarloos Wolfdog breed

The Saarlos Wolfdog was born in the Netherlands under the impulse of the breeder Lendeert Saarloos. He wanted the domestic dog to regain its natural characteristics. He then decided to cross a European wolf with his German Shepherd Dog. The first results were a failure since the descendants of the couple died in turn. Then finally, one specimen resisted and it was from there that reproduction began. In 1975, the breed was recognized by the Dutch Kennel Club. The International Canine Federation (FCI) officially recognized the Saarlos Wolfdog in 1981.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Saarloos Wolfdog

Having no attacking instinct, the Saarlos Wolfdog cannot take on the role of defense and hunting dog. He will rather be a companion dog affectionate towards his masters and a great hugger. They are independent and reserved especially towards strangers. However, he is very tolerant of children and remains sociable towards his fellow dogs. He also has an active and energetic nature and adapts himself to sporting masters. In addition, it is a dog with a strong capacity of observation and a sharp intelligence. As he is at the same time very distrustful, independent and a bit stubborn, his education remains complicated.

Diet and main health problems of the Saarloos Wolfdog

The Saarlos Wolfdog is known for its robustness. It is a dog that rarely gets sick. However, he is not spared from certain hereditary diseases such as hip dysplasia, dwarfism, eye diseases or degenerative myelopathy. He needs a preferably natural diet based on bones, raw meat, fruit and cereals.

Epilepsy in Dogs: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments and Prevention

Epilepsy is a chronic disease quite common in certain breeds of dogs that is not among the prohibitive vices. Let's find out in detail its main manifestations, if there are risks of complications for the animal, what are the treatments to treat seizures related to epilepsy in dogs and if it is possible to prevent this pathology.

Epilepsy: a more common disease in certain breeds of dogs

Some of the dog breeds most at risk for epilepsy include :
  • The Boxer,
  • The Poodle,
  • The German Shepherd,
  • Labrador,
  • The Dachshund,
  • The Beagle.
There are two types of epilepsy in dogs:
  • Primary epilepsy: without an identified cause, it can occur in a dog that is not predisposed and in excellent health,
  • Secondary epilepsy: it suggests an underlying pathology. This form of epilepsy requires not only medical follow-up but also additional tests to accurately diagnose the cause of the so-called secondary epilepsy. It can have for origin :
    • An intoxication by a chemical product,
    • An infection,
    • A brain tumor,
    • Head trauma,
    • Kidney pathology.
Diagnosing these health problems in dogs as early as possible is very important so that the animal can be taken care of by a veterinarian and epileptic seizures can be avoided.

Symptoms of epilepsy in dogs in three phases

Epilepsy manifests itself by convulsive seizures, more or less frequent, sometimes very impressive. The seizure occurs when an abnormal electrical discharge occurs in the brain. In the vast majority of cases, an epileptic seizure occurs in three phases, each of which can be identified by a set of symptoms, namely :

Pre-seizure: phase number 1

The dog seems quite active and wanders around aimlessly while licking his chops insistently. Then he vomits, urinates without seeming to be aware of it and salivates a lot. He seems anxious, stressed, which manifests itself differently from one dog to another, either by complaints, an insistent search for caresses, or untimely barking. In some cases, the dog tries to get away from his owners as if he was trying to be alone.

The crisis: phase number 2

This is the phase during which the convulsive seizure takes place, which impresses and moves the owner of the epileptic animal very much.

Every muscle is suddenly very tight, the dog's limbs become stiff. This is when the dog falls to the ground. He is shaking and his legs keep moving. The fact that his head is positioned backwards is another sign of the epileptic seizure. In some cases, the tongue turns blue, the dog drools and groans. Vomiting may also start again. The dog breathes quickly, sometimes with difficulty.

Post-seizure: phase number 3

This is the phase following the epileptic seizure. The dog seems a little haggard, still lying on the ground and immobile at first. He gets up after a few seconds or minutes, sometimes after several unsuccessful attempts. Afterwards, for one to several days, the dog does not have the same confidence as before the seizure when he moves around, he even seems to be a victim of a great weakness. He drinks and eats more than usual. In some cases, the dog's eyesight changes, declining alarmingly as the dog seems to no longer see, but this loss of visual acuity is fortunately of short duration.

How is epilepsy diagnosed in dogs?

It is essential to take your dog to the veterinarian when you have witnessed an epileptic seizure, especially if the seizures are relatively long and/or frequent. It is very important that the owner of the animal has taken care to note beforehand the course of the different phases of the seizure, their duration, the symptoms. This will allow the veterinarian to determine what type of epilepsy the dog is suffering from.

After a clinical examination, the animal undergoes additional tests such as :
  • A blood test,
  • An imaging exam such as :
    • MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).
    • The scanner.
It is just as frequent that a dog with epileptic seizures undergoes an electroencephalogram so that the activity of its brain can be analyzed as well as the general state of this intracranial organ.

Can epilepsy be treated in dogs?

As far as is currently known, there is no treatment that can cure primary epilepsy in dogs. However, a dog can live with primary epilepsy for a very long time if he is regularly monitored by his veterinarian. Injectable solutions are sometimes used to stop epileptic seizures that last several minutes. As for brain activity, it can be reduced with in-depth treatment. The only purpose of this medication is to reduce the frequency of seizures, which improves the comfort of life for a dog with epilepsy.

In secondary epilepsy, the underlying disease causing the seizures can be treated and the seizures can be stopped.

Epilepsy in canids: can it be prevented?

It is imperative that any pathology that may be at the origin of secondary epilepsy be treated early. This caution can really prevent the dog from suffering from it for the rest of his life. Every owner must therefore always listen to his pet, observe it, and make sure that everything is fine. Ideally, you should take your dog to the vet at least once or twice a year for a small check-up. At the slightest doubt, the specialist can carry out a health check to detect a disease.

At the same time, it is of course essential to make sure that your dog is always up to date with his vaccinations. The vaccine is very useful to protect the health of his little companion against more or less serious diseases.

Epilepsy in dogs inevitably involves considerable expense for the owner. Some people cannot have their pets treated because they do not have the financial means to do so. However, it is important to know that the sums incurred for veterinary procedures can be reimbursed at least partially by an animal health insurance company.

The Bouvier des Flandres, a dog with the airs of big teddy bears

Don't be fooled by his big teddy bear look under his thick tuft of hair. The Bouvier des Flandres is a very dynamic dog that needs a lot of physical exercise: the perfect companion for sporting families, especially since this dog has a lot of love to give.

Characteristics of the Bouvier des Flandres

Belonging to the family of sheepdogs and cattle dogs, the Bouvier des Flandres is a large dog measuring 59 to 65 cm for females and 62 to 68 cm for males, with a weight ranging from 27 to 40 kg depending on the sex. It is an animal with a stocky, powerful and graceful body. Despite this imposing physiognomy, it does not develop any heaviness. It has a head which seems massive, but which finally, remains proportional to the rest of the body.

The Bouvier des Flandres des Flandres has a beard and a moustache that give it a cheerful and sympathetic look. His head is haloed by two triangular ears, half-long, round at the ends, which are set high. They fall on the cheeks when they are whole. The eyes for their part are of dark color and oval shape. All the beauty of the Bouvier des Flandres lies in its semi-long, dry, rough and abundant coat. The standard authorizes several colors of coats in particular coal, brindle, gray or black.

History of the Bouvier des Flandres breed

The Bouvier des Flandres comes from the region of Flanders located between Belgium, France and the Netherlands. However, its origins remain rather unclear. In France, it is said to be a cross between the ancestor of the Berger de Beauce and a Griffon. In Belgium, however, it would be a descendant of the Bouvier de Roules. Faced with all these polemics, the International Canine Federation (FCI) finally decided that the Bouvier des Flandres would have both Belgian and French origins. Initially, it was mainly used for the surveillance of cattle herds. In particular, it ensures their protection against predators at night. Today, thanks to its olfactory qualities, its physical capacities and its instinct, it has become the ally of the forces of law and order in the work of tracking.

Necessary living conditions and behaviour of the Bouvier des Flandres

The Bouvier des Flandres is an intelligent animal with a balanced character. It is faithful, affectionate and develops a strong instinct of protection and courage. This is why it excels as a guard dog. As he is reasoned and calm, he is perfectly able to evolve in an environment with children. To become obedient, he needs a gentle and firm education. Note that this dog is reserved towards strangers. He also has difficulty to bear solitude. In addition, it is an animal that needs to get as much physical exercise as possible. Going jogging in the morning with his owners will do him a lot of good.

Diet and main health problems of the Bouvier des Flandres

The Bouvier des Flandres needs a rich and varied diet based on tripe, meat, pasta, rice, cereals and vegetables. He can also eat industrial food as long as it is of excellent quality. On the health side, it is necessary to watch out for stomach torsion and hip dysplasia.

The Basenji, Nyam-Nyam terrier or Congo terrier

Revealing all the grace of a gazelle with its fine bones, proudly carried head and light body, the Basenji is appreciated for its royal look. It is a sporty, lively, gentle and adorable animal that will occupy a place of choice in any family if you know how to deal with it.

Characteristics of Basenji

The Basenji attracts all the attention by its morphology combining elegance and finesse. High on legs, it develops an average size between 40 and 43 cm. Its fine bones and its dry musculature make all its peculiarity. It reveals a correctly chiselled head of average width on which two pointed ears throne which bring all its charm to this dog. When they stand up, wrinkles appear on the forehead and sides, giving the animal a stunned look.

It has almond-shaped eyes, a dark color that expresses a bit of mystery. The Basenji has a short, tight, shiny and rather fine coat. It is generally bicolor (black and tan, black and white, black, fawn and white, etc.), but can also have a brindle or black coat. In principle the chest, tip and feet are white. Another specificity of this breed is its tail which forms a tight loop on the back and is carried high.

History of the Basenji breed

The Basenji is part of the closed circle of very old breeds of dogs. Its first traces were discovered 5000 years ago and since these many centuries, it seems that it has not changed much in appearance. This dog is said to be a descendant of the Egyptian greyhound and comes from Central Africa, more precisely from the Congo. After having disappeared for a while, it was rediscovered in the 19th century by British explorers. It was not introduced in Europe until the 20th century. Even if African tribes used the Basenji for small game hunting, as a guide in the forests or to warn of the presence of wild animals, today it will be appreciated above all as a pet, as it is not adapted to European game.

Necessary living conditions and behaviour of the Basenji

The Basenji clearly does not look like other dogs. First of all, he doesn't bark. But that doesn't mean that he is silent. Rather, it emits vocalizations or chuckles that are quite typical. This animal is very intelligent, rather lively and very affectionate towards its masters. On the other hand, it does not appreciate strangers too much. Another thing, it can evolve with children, but it is preferable that they grow up with it. The Basenji is also an independent, active and athletic dog. Ideally, he has large spaces at his disposal, as he used to be when he was a hunter in Africa. He is also known to be very stubborn and does not like orders. This is why he needs expert masters in dog education.

Diet and main health problems of Basenji

Basenji is in good health, although certain pathologies such as Fanconi syndrome, a hereditary disease manifested by kidney disorders, should be monitored. In addition, this animal can be affected by ocular degeneration, groin hernia or hip dysplasia. To ensure his iron health, he needs a balanced and good quality diet, without an excess of treats, as he is a dog easily prone to being overweight.

The Chinese Crested Dog, a dog without hair on his body

The Chinese Crested Dog is a breed whose gait is decidedly off the beaten track. It attracts attention with its nudity and its head with a tuft of hair, which is similar to a rooster's crest, hence its name. Because of its exceptional physical characteristics, the Chinese Crested Dog needs very specific care.

Characteristics of the Chinese Crested Dog

The Chinese Crested Dog is considered to be the most curious and strange dog. It must be said that his physique is particularly atypical. This breed comes in two types: the fluffy variety also known as Powder-Puff and the naked variety. The first has soft and long hair along the body. The standard accepts all shades, all tones and mixes as far as the coat is concerned.

However, it is especially the "naked" type that is the most original. Thus, it is devoid of hair except for the head. The ridge is provided with fine hairs that go from the top of the head to the neck. The feet, the lower limbs as well as the tail are also hairy in this variety. The Chinese Crested Dog is small in size. It measures from 23 to 33 cm for a weight between 3 and 5 kg. The body benefits from a kind of flexibility and is rather long. The head displays a lively and graceful look. It has dark to black and almond-shaped eyes. The ears are erect and large. In Powder-Puff, they are usually drooping.

History of the breed Chinese Crested Dog

The origins of the Chinese Crested Dog are not very clear. It is said that this breed of Chinese origin dates back to the Han dynasty, around the beginning of the 13th century, which makes it an ancient animal. In its country of origin, it was used to fight against vermin and rats during transport by boat. On arrival, tradition had it that the animal was also sold with the goods being shipped. This explains the presence of the Chinese Crested Dog in many countries around the world. Moreover, in China, it is not very well known. On the other hand, it conquered the heart of the Anglo-Saxons.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Chinese Crested Dog

The Chinese Crested Dog is very gentle, active and always cheerful. He is obedient and remains compatible with children. Even if he is not really dedicated to guarding, he proves to be an excellent pet, especially since he remains deeply attached to his masters. In addition, he does not need a lot of physical exercise. On this subject, the Chinese Crested Dog must live indoors, because his nudity makes his skin extremely sensitive to cold or strong heat. A few walks from time to time will be enough to make him happy.

Diet and main health problems of Chinese Crested Dogs

Since this dog's body cannot retain heat due to the lack of hair, he needs a high energy diet. As far as his health is concerned, this dog can be affected by dermatological diseases such as solar dermatitis, atopic or allergic dermatitis or sunburn.

The Belgian Tervueren Shepherd Dog, a sporty and intelligent dog

Belonging to the great family of the Belgian Shepherds, the Tervueren is an inveterate, very intelligent sportsman who is also deeply attached to his masters, even if it means giving his life to protect them. This dog, as powerful as it is elegant, is only intended for people with a solid foundation in dog training.

Characteristics of the Belgian Tervueren Shepherd Dog

The Belgian Shepherd Dog comes in four main varieties: Malinois, Laekenois, Groenendael and Tervueren. Each species is distinguished mainly by its coat. In the case of the Tervueren, it has long hair, just like the Groenendael. The coat is thicker on the chest, tail, neck and back of the thighs. On the head, the bottom of the limbs and the external part of the ears, the hair will be shorter. Another distinctive feature of the Tervueren is the coat which must be fawn charcoal. Charcoal gray is also allowed.

In order not to be penalized by the standard, the Tervueren must absolutely show a black pigmentation at the level of the chops, the upper eyelids and the ears. As far as his morphology is concerned, he is a hardy dog, harmoniously proportioned and endowed with a medioline body. At the withers, it measures between 56 and 60 cm and weighs between 20 and 30 kg depending on whether it is a male or a female. The Tervueren has a long head ending in a fine muzzle. The almond-shaped eyes are brownish in color and of medium size. The ears are fairly small, triangular and set high.

History of the Tervueren Belgian Shepherd Dog Breed

The Tervueren comes from Belgium, more precisely from Tervueren which is located in Brabant, near Brussels. He was born around the XIXth century and is said to be descended from the black Groenendael and another fawn-colored sheepdog. Its appearance is at the initiative of a group of cynophiles of the veterinary school of Cureghen having at its head professor Reul. It was in 1894 that the first standard was established for the Belgian Shepherd Dog. The Tervueren in particular was a dog in charge of guarding herds and dedicated to protection. His skills were then used in research and security.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Tervueren

The Tervueren can take on the role of both working dog and pet at the same time, as long as he is part of a dynamic family, as he needs a lot of exercise. This tireless dog is suitable for agility training. He is distinguished by his devotion to his masters and by his loyalty. He is very intelligent, active, observant and vigilant. He likes to show affection and is gentle and patient with children.

Diet and main health problems of the Tervueren

The Tervueren must benefit from a diet compatible with his lifestyle in order to avoid deficiencies or overweight. The ideal is to opt for a food rich in carbohydrates and proteins that will meet his energy expenditure. On the health side, he may suffer from thyroid problems, epileptic episodes, but also hip dysplasia.

Insuring an old dog, no age limit, how to do it?

Many pet insurance companies impose an age limit after which it is no longer possible to insure your dog. This limit varies according to the breed of dog. For the pet owner, it is necessary to start early enough if he wants his little companion to be well covered. This allows him to be partially or totally reimbursed for expenses incurred for veterinary procedures.

Insuring your old dog: an age limit according to its breed

The life expectancy of a dog is partly related to the breed of the animal and animal insurers are well aware of this. Many insurers impose an age limit at which they refuse to grant a new membership. While it is generally stated that this age limit is between 6 and 8 years of age for a dog, in practice it is somewhat different. This age is assessed according to the category to which the dog to be insured belongs.

If the distinction between dog breeds is so important for insurers, it is because some are more at risk than others. It is accepted that the bigger the dogs are, the more likely they are to develop certain pathologies that can lead to significant health costs. By imposing an age limit, insurers simply want to avoid paying too much money.

Thus, a dog is considered old or senior from :
  • 5 years in giant breeds with a life expectancy of 8 years. Few of these dogs are the following: Borzoi, Great Dane, Irish Wolfhound, Kangal or Anatolian Shepherd Dog, Landseer, Leonberger or Leonberger Dog, Neapolitan Mastiff, Mastiff or Tibetan Mastiff, Pyrenean Mountain Dog, Saint Bernard.
  • 7 years for large breeds with an estimated life expectancy of 9 years. This is for example the case of the German Shepherd, Labrador, Dalmatian, etc...
  • 9 years for medium-sized breeds with an approximate life expectancy of 13 years such as the Pug, Beagle and many others.
  • 10 years for small breeds with an average life expectancy of 16 years. Among these dogs are the Yorkshire, the Pekingese or the Bichon.
Of course, whatever the breed to which it belongs, a dog can live much longer than the statistics indicate! And this is all the more true if he is insured early enough because he can benefit from preventive measures, medical supervision and better follow-up in case of illness or accident. This is the case for dogs covered by health insurance since the expenses incurred by their owner are covered, either partially or 100% within the limits of the ceilings freely set by each insurer.

Choosing a mutual animal health insurance company that covers elderly dogs

Before his dog becomes senior, the owner must absolutely make sure to take out a health insurance policy from a pet insurance company if they impose an age limit. But sometimes, we take in a stray dog who is already senior. In this case, one should turn to an insurance company that does not apply any age limit. Fortunately, this is becoming more and more common, due to competition.

Be careful however, these professionals impose conditions such as for example :
  • A certain restriction on the level of guarantees (excluded diseases...),
  • A lower reimbursement rate for senior dogs,
  • The production, by the owner of the dog at the time of subscription, of a declaration of health, a kind of certificate issued by a veterinarian. In very exceptional cases, this declaration may be drawn up by the owner of the animal.
To avoid being refused reimbursement of veterinary expenses, it is in the best interest of the dog owner to take out a contract as soon as possible. When choosing the formula that best suits his companion and his budget, he should take the time to find out about the age limit, if any, but also about the levels of coverage, exclusions, and general conditions in general, as each company is free to impose its own rules.

The Whippet (Greyhound), a dog of great elegance

The Whippet is recognized for its great elegance and vigor. This breed renowned for its speed is not exclusively dedicated to hunting or racing. It is also a perfect pet that will be happy only with sport masters who can practice dog sports with him.

Characteristics of the Whippet

The Whippet attracts attention with its athletic look, balanced strength, powerful muscles and graceful, elegant lines. It can be said that physically, it has everything for him. His physiognomy is distinguished by the presence of a curvature at the kidney level. A body designed to allow him to reach 60 km/h during a sprint. In terms of measurements, the Whippet measures between 44 and 51 cm depending on whether it is a male or a female weighing between 12 and 13 kg. It has a long head with a flat, dry skull that tapers to the tip of the muzzle. The stop is moderately marked. The Whippet has bright, oval eyes that reveal a beautiful expression of liveliness. The ears are thin, small and are said to be "in pink". The dog has a short, tight and fine coat. The standard admits all mixtures and colors of coats.

History of the Whippet breed

The Whippet is a breed coming from England. It is very old since it is mentioned as early as the 17th century. At the time, it was nicknamed the Levron or Doggystyle. The breed we know today would have appeared around the 19th century. It is said that it would result from a hybridization between the Fox Terrier, the Greyhound, the Italian Greyhound and the Bull Terrier. The recognition in Great Britain takes place in the early 1900s. The Whippet was mainly used for hunting hares. But it was also very popular in dog speed racing. It must be said that it excels in this field. It even owes its name to this exceptional speed. Whippet comes from the expression "Whip it!" which means "Go for it!".

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Whippet

The Whippet is discreet, quiet and easy to live with. He is also faithful and attached to his masters. Although he appreciates the presence of his owners, he is not really a cuddly dog that needs to be cuddled all the time. Moreover, sensitivity is not his strong point. However, he can get along well with children, but he is not an inveterate player. What he likes most of all? Doing his sprints. That's why he will only develop his skills with master athletes. In spite of his dynamic character, he can perfectly live in an apartment provided he can run regularly and enjoy frequent walks. As he doesn't bark a lot, he won't cause any inconvenience to the neighborhood.

Diet and main health problems of the Whippet

As a dog is a very active dog, especially if he is entered in dog races, he needs to get enough nutrients to make up for the energy losses. Beware of food intolerances! He is sensitive to this. On the health side, he does not develop any specific pathologies, but after the races, it will be necessary to watch for possible bone, joint or muscle injuries.

The Schnauzer, an elegant dog with an assertive temperament

Elegant, coupled with an assertive temperament, the Schnauzer is a breed renowned for its intelligence. They are excellent watchdogs, but they are also a pleasant pet. For a harmonious cohabitation with him, an education without brutality will be de rigueur.

Characteristics of the Schnauzer

This dog is characterized by its compact and robust body and its square construction. It develops a long, wrinkle-free head with a flat forehead that displays power. It is completed by a muzzle ending in a truncated cone. The animal's eyes are hidden behind thick eyebrows and are oval in shape and of medium size with a dark color. The ears set high and carried forward resemble a V shape that are hanging and slightly folded. The Schnauzer has a short (but not too short) coat that is dense and harsh. The standard tolerates white, two-colored (salt and pepper) or one-colored (black) coats.

The Schnauzer comes in three varieties:
  • the Dwarf Schnauzer which has a height at the withers of 30 to 35 cm for a weight between 4 and 8 kg,
  • the average Schnauzer which is between 45 and 50 cm tall and weighs between 14 and 20 kg,
  • the Giant Schnauzer which is 60 to 70 cm long and weighs between 35 and 47 kg.

History of the Schnauzer breed

The Schnauzer is originally from Bavaria, Germany. It has as ancestors, races which were also used to obtain Terriers. The Schnauzer was mainly used for hunting, especially rodents. Then, it evolved and became mainly a dog of defense and guard. He was very popular in the stables and served as a companion for coachmen. He used to be nicknamed the Wirehaired Pinscher before being named Schnauzer. His official recognition by the International Canine Federation (FCI) was in 1955.

Necessary living conditions and behaviour of the Schnauzer

The Schnauzer has a great liveliness and jovial character. It is also soft, calm and shows bonhomie. It is an animal that carries a lot of affection towards its master and is very attached to him on condition that a form of respect is established between the two. Let's not forget that the Schnauzer is a dog with an assertive temperament and cannot belong to people who are novices in dog training. He must be trained with attention and firmness, without unjust reprimands or violence. As for his way of life, the Schnauzer can live in an apartment if he enjoys the necessary space and lots of exercise and walks.

Diet and main health problems of the Schnauzer

The Schnauzer will be satisfied with a classic diet spread over two meals consisting of meat, cooked vegetables and brown rice. In terms of health, the Schnauzer is a hardy and hardy animal, but it can develop certain pathologies such as hypothyroidism, urinary disorders or eye problems. The Giant Schnauzer in particular can be affected by a hereditary disease called coxo-femoral dysplasia.

Leishmaniasis in dogs: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Leishmaniasis is an extremely serious parasitic disease. At present, there is no treatment that can cure the dog affected by this pathology which can lead to the death of the animal. Fortunately, there are treatments available that can alleviate the symptoms of leishmaniasis and there are various prevention solutions. Let's take a look at this disease, whose incubation period can last several years.

Leishmaniasis: the phlebotome involved

Leishmaniasis is transmitted to the dog by a biting insect of the order Diptera: the sandfly (Phlebotominae), of which there are many species. Totally absent in the Nordic countries, the sandfly is moderately present in North Africa, in our Mediterranean regions, and is abundant in Asia.

This microscopic insect rests on the skin of the animal and feeds on its blood. Only some species of sandflies are vectors of leishmaniasis when they are themselves infected. In our latitudes, the dog is the main victim of this insect. But humans can also be affected by leishmaniasis since the agent is transmitted from animals to humans. Leishmaniasis is therefore a zoonosis.

Leishmaniasis: symptoms

Leishmaniasis in dogs develops differently from one canid to another. Some dogs may be carriers of this pathology but not show any particular symptoms, others may show more or less important signs.

The evolution of leishmaniasis is unpredictable, as well as the appearance of the first signs between two months and several years after contamination. This makes the diagnosis of the disease particularly difficult.

Symptoms of leishmaniasis are generally :
  • Skin damage: more or less important lesions appear over time. They may leave simple scabs or on the contrary become infected and ulcerated.
  • An increase in the volume of the lymph nodes.
  • Damage to certain organs such as the liver and the spleen, whose volume increases, or irreversible damage to the kidneys.
  • Intense thirst and consequently an increase in the volume of urine. This can also be a sign that the dog's kidneys are affected.
  • A general weakening of the dog when he is anaemic, which results in a decrease in the number of red blood cells,
  • A long-term slimming of the animal.
More rarely, the dog has a high fever and the structure of its eyes may be affected.

Leishmaniasis: treatments

There is currently no absolutely effective treatment that can cure a dog with leishmaniasis. However, a treatment protocol can be set up by the veterinarian to alleviate the symptoms of the disease, but the cases of recurrence are numerous. This treatment, which combines medication and injections, is long. It must be followed for several months, and in some cases for the entire life of the animal. And if the dog finds it difficult to tolerate it, the protocol must be stopped.

In any case, whether the dog tolerates the treatment or not, the dog suffering from leishmaniasis has to be followed very regularly by his veterinarian. Different laboratory tests and other check-ups have to be done regularly to monitor the evolution of this pathology. It is sometimes necessary to submit the sick dog to biopsies, i.e. to take samples from the lymph nodes, skin or bone marrow.

Of course, the diagnosis of leishmaniasis in dogs should be made as early as possible.

Leishmaniasis: what prevention?

In order to protect his dog against leishmaniasis, the owner should ask the veterinarian about the different preventive solutions. This is all the more important if he has to travel with his animal to the areas of the world most exposed to the risk of leishmaniasis, i.e. where the phlebotome responsible for this pathology is the most present.

Here is how to limit the risks of leishmaniasis in dogs.
  • In affected areas, it is common sense to avoid taking your dog out at nightfall, when the biting insects are particularly virulent.
  • Protect the dog basket with a good quality mosquito net or install mosquito nets on windows and bay windows.
  • Use an external antiparasitic and mosquito repellent: a specific collar can be purchased in a pharmacy after asking the veterinarian if there are no contraindications. Useful, these products do not however offer 100% effectiveness. They can nevertheless complement other preventive measures.
  • Vaccinate your dog over 6 months of age by following precisely the indications of the veterinarian in order not to miss any injection.
Dog leishmaniasis is a fatal disease. The animal contaminated by the sandfly can be sick for many years, during which time it will have to be treated and monitored by the veterinarian.

It is a difficult pathology for the dog of course, but also for the owner who feels helpless in front of his sick little companion. Moreover, the treatment of leishmaniasis being long and expensive, it can be a financial problem for the owner if he has not taken care to insure his dog with an animal health insurance company. However, it is very important for the dog to benefit from the best treatments, because the animal insurance company reimburses the veterinary expenses.

Dog of character: how to manage and train him?

Training a dog of character requires firmness. But for this to be successful, the master must analyze and understand the behavior of his animal in order to apply the most appropriate educational method. Confidence, respect, patience and mastery are essential to educate a dog with a strong character and to avoid mistakes because they can lead to aggressiveness or fear and end up being the opposite of what was intended.

Dog of character: a very suggestive notion

"My dog has character! "is an expression that is heard all the time, but it is not always used with good reason. This is for example the case when the dog is for example :
  • Aggressive,
  • Destructive,
  • Disobedient,
  • Bite,
  • Thief,
  • Runaway.
These characteristics are not traits of character but defects in behavior that a good education can correct. On the other hand, they are very often due to a lack of education or an unsuitable educational method.

The character of a dog is linked to its breed (in part) and can be modified by education (for good or ill). It is thus necessary to dissociate the innate character from the behavior (or acquired character). Three fundamental elements thus forge the character of a dog:
  • Its race,
  • His life story,
  • His education.
If its education is well managed, it makes it possible to socialize a dog, to improve its behavior in society and thus to modify its character without transforming it radically.

There is no one way to train a dog, since one must always take into account his personality so that the animal is happy and his master obtains the best results.

Training a dog: patience and credibility

It is an illusion to want to educate your dog in a few days. Patience is the basis as well as the constant mood of the master so that the dog understands what is expected of him. One should not be harsh one day for an act of disobedience and be lax the next day when the dog repeats it. To train a dog, credibility is essential.

However, be careful not to be mistaken. An aggressive dog is not a dog with character! He must therefore be trained differently, and if possible by a team of professionals. This aggressiveness can be the result of educational errors, some masters being convinced that a dog must be "checked" to be educated. This is completely false. It is not by violating or bullying an animal that one can make him understand the rules to be respected.

The training method must therefore be adapted to the dog's character and take place in a climate of trust. If the animal does not understand what his master expects of him and is not put in confidence, he risks being anxious, even frightened, and consequently aggressive towards his fellow dogs but also towards humans.

Dog training professionals strongly recommend that you start by forming a kind of buddy system with your dog. The master must guide his companion, define the rules and then teach him to respect them so that the animal does not represent any danger in his future life and is as well balanced as possible.

If you welcome a dog with a strong character into your home and you do not feel able to train him, you can ask for advice from a behaviourist veterinarian or entrust his education to a dog trainer.

At what age should a dog be trained?

The ideal is to start training the puppy as early as possible. However, some families welcome a dog that is already adult and that has not necessarily been trained. It is of course possible to instill some good manners in the dog, but it is a little more complicated because the animal has had time to develop very bad habits. In any case, at any age the dog can change, improve and acquire a rule of conduct. It is an animal that is perfectly capable of adapting to its environment and to the rules required by its master and its host family if everyone is consistent and if a climate of trust reigns on a daily basis.

As early as the eighth week of life, the dog can already begin to be guided. This training is essential so that the animal quickly develops good habits and assimilates orders. Otherwise, within a few months the dog acts as a free electron and it is then much more complicated to straighten the bar. In the absence of early education, the consequences can be very important, such as for example
  • Untimely barking,
  • Aggressiveness,
  • Hyperactivity...
Many dog behavior problems are due to a lack of education, the dog then having no notion of the rules of life. This lack of knowledge making the animal difficult to manage is the cause of 8 out of 10 abandonments.

Communication between the master and the animal is both verbal and gestural. But it must be used in the same way by all members of the family. As for the rules of life to be respected, they must be demanded by everyone so that the dog integrates them and then respects them. It is thus necessary to show a great coherence, and to stick to them.

You get better results, even if you start training a dog as an adult, as long as you respect his comprehension abilities. It is important to be observant, to analyze his reactions and to take into account his life history without letting him do anything.

Before welcoming a dog into the family, it is fundamental to learn about the characteristics of his breed. Some owners find it very difficult to live in perfect harmony with dogs with a strong character. It is therefore better to turn to another dog that is more flexible or more discreet, especially if the master does not wish to make the effort to educate him, because it is a long term job but so rewarding!

The English Springer, docile and playful dog

A former hunting dog, the English Springer now bears the title of companion dog. A role that he fulfills to perfection being an affectionate, docile and playful dog. Children will find in him a wonderful playmate.

Characteristics of the English Springer

Belonging to the large family of spaniels, the English Springer has a harmonious body that is both solid and compact. It measures on average 51 cm and weighs between 18 and 22 kg for males and about 18 kg for females. It is the highest legged breed among spaniels. The English Springer has a head with a rounded and broad skull. Its muzzle is not very long and forms a kind of square. The ears carried high are wide and long and are covered with a fringe. The English Springer owes its particularity in particular to its look which is at the same time soft and sad. His eyes are medium sized, almond shaped and dark hazelnut in color. Attention, the light shades are penalized by the standard. As for the coat, it is medium long, straight and dense. Bangs are visible on the belly and legs. The standard admits liver and white (with tan spots) or black and white.

History of the English Springer breed

Originally from the British Isles, the English Springer is a very old breed which is mentioned from the seventeenth century. Initially, it was mainly used in hunting water and land game. It was particularly famous for its incredible ability to find or drive away greyhounds or falcons. Later on, his talent was used for research, retrieving or raising game. The first standard of this breed will be established by the Sporting Spaniel Society in 1902. The recognition by the American Kennel Club and the English Kennel Club will take place 8 years later. As regards the Fédération cynologique internationale (FCI), the authority will recognize it in 1954.

Necessary living conditions and behaviour of the English Springer

Being a hunting dog, the Springer needs to exercise a lot and must especially evolve in large spaces. Small, confined apartments are not for him. He will be more comfortable in a large house with a large garden, next to sporting masters who will be able to satisfy his need for physical activity. He is a dog that is docile, easy to live with, obedient and very cheerful. Above all, he likes to please his owners, to whom he feels a lot of affection. He also appreciates children and will never be against the idea of playing games with them.

Nutrition and main health problems of the English Springer

The English Springer can be a victim of some common conditions such as hip dysplasia, skin problems, deafness or eye problems. To stay in shape, he needs to consume a good quality diet that can be home-made or industrial. In the second case, it is preferable to choose premium kibbles. And as he is a rather greedy dog, the quantity of his food is to be watched.

The Spitz Wolf, a dog full of liveliness

Full of liveliness and very affectionate, the Spitz-wolf also called Keeshond in Anglo-Saxon countries owes its name to its sublime silvery fur. This companion dog will delight families with its many qualities, including its courage and devotion to its masters.

Characteristics of the Wolf Spitz

A fox in the body of a teddy bear. If one were to describe the Spitz Wolf, it would certainly be this way. He is the largest representative of the Spitz type dogs. He can measure between 40 and 58 cm and weigh between 16 and 22 kg. It is a dog with a sturdy body that ends with a plume tail carried high on the back. The breed is recognizable by its head which resembles that of a fox. The broad skull becomes narrower and narrower and finally wedge-shaped. The ears are triangular, small, pointed, set high and well tucked up.

The Spitz-Wolf reveals a mischievous look. Its eyes are neither too small nor too large and are dark in color. Another specificity of the dog lies in its long, spread, straight and above all, very thick hair. The coat is thicker at the ruff and shorter, more velvety at the ears, head, feet and forelegs. Of course, the only coat allowed is wolf grey.

History of the Spitz Wolf breed

The Keeshond comes from the Arctic regions and is said to be descended from the Chow-Chow, Samoyed, Pomeranian Loulou and Elkhounds. It is said to be one of the oldest breeds in Central Europe. It is also nicknamed "great bargemen's dog" because it was used as a companion by bargemen on their merchant barges. It is in Holland that it was the most successful, and it was the Dutch who named it Keeshond. The Wolf Spitz is one of the few Spitz-type breeds that was not created for hunting, but only for guarding and companionship. The first registration in the LOF was made in 1937.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Spitz Wolf

As it is primitive, the Wolf Spitz is rather sensitive. Because of this character, it is said to be difficult to educate. In reality, as long as the master has experience in dog breeding, there should be no problem in the education of this dog. The latter is known to have a lively and courageous temperament. He is attentive, alert and above all very attached to his masters for whom he is ready for anything. One of the assets of the Wolf Spitz is that it adapts very well to life in the city. It does not need intense physical activity, but must take regular walks.

Diet and main health problems of the Spitz Wolf

Of robust nature, the Wolf Spitz is not however immune to some hereditary diseases specific to the breed such as alopecia, hyperparathyroidism or essential epilepsy. Normally, screening tests should allow to detect these pathologies on dogs before breeding. Hip dysplasia as well as skin problems should also be taken into consideration. On the food side, this dog is fond of raw meat and can eat bones to be gnawed, but he must not abuse it.

The Tibetan Spaniel, a very old breed dog

The Tibetan Spaniel is a Tibetan mountain dog, a very old breed whose origins are still controversial. Cheerful, alert and intelligent, the Tibetan Spaniel plays very well the role of warning dog which was his main mission when he was at the service of Buddhist monks.

Characteristics of the Tibetan Spaniel

The Tibetan Spaniel is a small dog measuring between 22 and 26 cm and weighing between 4 and 7 kg. Its body can fit into a triangle with a strong neck, but short topped by a mane that is longer than the height at the withers. The Tibetan Spaniel has a relatively small head compared to the body. He wears it very proudly. The domed skull is of medium size and has a marked stop. The dog has dark brown eyes, oval shaped and set wide apart. The look reveals a touching expression full of liveliness. As for the ears, they are set high, of medium size and abundant in bangs. They are also hanging. As for the coat, it is long and flat on the rest of the body, but short at the level of the head and the front part of the limbs. The standard tolerates all colors, combinations and shades of coat. It is therefore possible to find dogs with sand, white, black, gold, cream, etc. coats.

Breed History Tibetan Spaniel

The origins of the Tibetan Spaniel are still quite unclear. It is said to be a descendant of the Pug, the Pekingese and the Japanese Spaniel. What is certain in any case is that this breed comes from the mountains of Tibet and is known since the end of antiquity since it has long been used as a guard dog by Buddhist monks in their temples. It is important to know that even if it is called "spaniel", it is not a hunting dog. It has always been used as a warning or companion dog. It is only around the 19th century that the Tibetan Spaniel was introduced in England. The FCI (International Canine Federation) officially recognized him in 1961.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Tibetan Spaniel

The Tibetan Spaniel is a highly intelligent and self-confident animal with a cheerful, alert and active character. It is also very loyal to its masters without being a glue pot, but keeps a certain independence. On the other hand, this dog does not appreciate strangers. Moreover, it is very effective to give the alarm thanks to its barking. The Tibetan Spaniel is a pet that is as suitable for families with children as it is for the elderly. No training is required with this breed. The dog will just have to learn the rules of life. On the other hand, he will have to be socialized at a young age.

Diet and main health problems of the Tibetan Spaniel

A hardy dog, the Tibetan Spaniel has a relatively strong health. However, he can be affected by urinary stones, generalized retinal atrophy or patella dislocation. It has a life expectancy of 12 to 15 years. In order for him to live that long, he will need to be provided with a good quality diet. In any case, it is not a big glutton.

The Havanese, a beautiful dog with a long coat

We admire it for its beautiful and long coat. We love it for its liveliness and dynamism. We love him for his joie de vivre. The Havanese is a pet dog par excellence that will become a real ray of sunshine for the whole family.

Characteristics of the Havanese

Of small corpulence, the Havanese measures between 21 and 29 cm and displays a weight varying between 4 and 5 kg. This dog full of grace and elegance reveals a medium sized head with a flattened skull and a slightly accentuated stop. Its face is recognizable among a thousand by the expression of "small beaten dog" with ears with long bangs, which are carried high but reach the level of the cheeks. The Havanese also reveals rather large almond-shaped eyes that are dark, even black. The beauty of this breed lies in its long, abundant, flat or wavy coat with a silky texture. It is rare that the coat is pure white. It can be black, fawn, brown or reddish brown. The standard admits the presence of spots with these colors.

History of the Havanese breed

Belonging to the family of the 4 breeds of Bichons, as well as the Curlyhaired Bichon, the Bolognese Bichon and the Maltese Bichon, the Havanese is native to a city of sunshine: Cuba. It is said to have been introduced in the 17th century by Spanish and Italian navigators. Because of the very different environment between Cuba and the European cities where the dog comes from, mutations have been observed making the animal more massive, robust and rustic. It is said that crossbreeding with water dogs and the Italian Bichon led to the Havanese, which was not officially recognized as a breed until 1963 by the FCI.

Necessary living conditions and behavior of the Havanese

A charming animal, the Havanese often shows itself at its best to continually seduce its masters. He is especially known for his cheerfulness and his joy of life. It enjoys playing and becomes a perfect companion for children. But he also knows how to stay quiet when necessary. This affectionate dog will make families happy. He is also attentive and alert, which is why he can act as a warning dog. Moreover, the Havanese is intelligent and relatively easy to train if you know how to be gentle and firm with him. Compared to his lifestyle, he is an indoor dog that does not need too much physical exercise. Regular walks will suffice.

Nutrition and main health problems of the Havanese

Thanks to the selection carried out on this breed, this one is rather robust. It fears nevertheless the cold because of its undercoat little developed. It can also be affected by certain frequent diseases such as congenital deafness, cataract, or Distichiasis which is an anomaly of the eyelashes. Her kneecaps as well as her teeth should also be watched. In addition, the Havanese adapts to all kinds of food which must be nutritious and not too heavy.

My dog is shaking: why?

Seeing your dog trembling can worry the owner of the animal when he doesn't know the reason why. Sometimes normal, sometimes a sign of an underlying disease, trembling in dogs is due to a wide variety of causes. In order to adopt the right attitude to relieve a trembling dog, it is necessary to be able to identify the cause of the tremor because it can, in some cases, be very serious. It is therefore essential to look for any accompanying symptoms.

Trembling dog: physiological causes

Some dog breeds, especially short-haired ones, are particularly sensitive to cold. But any dog, even with a thick and long coat, can suffer from extremely low temperatures. In any case, the animal will start to tremble to a greater or lesser extent without this justifying any concern on the part of the master. Simply warm the dog up and it will stop shaking.

Another non-threatening cause of trembling in a dog is fear. This can be caused by the sight of an unusual animal or a loud noise. The explosion of firecrackers and the passage of a supersonic plane are often factors that trigger a tremor following a feeling of fear. This manifestation is not serious, because the animal calms down very quickly, especially if its owner takes care to reassure it by talking to it and by caressing it.

There are other physiological causes of trembling such as :
  • Joy: a dog trembles on its legs when it sees its master come back each evening,
  • Stress: A dog may tremble when experiencing a stressful situation such as being in the waiting room of the veterinarian, in a crate or on a plane trip.
Stress tremor is common in small dogs and puppies of all breeds. This is known as trembling dog syndrome, for which the veterinarian may prescribe medication.

Tremors are often caused by different emotions and are also common in older dogs simply because their muscles lose their tone as they age.

With the exception of the Trembling Dog Syndrome, a physiological cause is considered to be normal and therefore not serious. In fact, it is enough to divert the dog's attention by playing a game to stop the trembling.

Tremor in dogs: an illness in cause

Sometimes, tremor in dogs is due to a serious pathology that must be diagnosed as soon as possible.

A treatment is absolutely necessary, or even an emergency hospitalization depending on the case. These pathological causes lead to other symptoms than tremors such as :
  • A loss of visual acuity,
  • Urinary incontinence,
  • A lack of appetite,
  • Slimming,
  • A great general tiredness.
  • A perceptible suffering,
  • Tremors,
  • Excessive salivation,
  • Moaning,
  • Vomiting and other digestive disorders.
As regards canine pathologies causing tremors, we find for example :
  • Cellular globoid leukodystrophy, more commonly known as Krabbe disease, which affects the peripheral and central nervous system,
  • Canine distemper for which there is no treatment,
  • Epilepsy, whose seizures are very recognizable,
  • Parvovirosis or hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, a fatal viral disease,
  • Canine typhus, a fatal disease in a third of cases.
All these diseases are serious. When a dog shakes for no apparent reason (fear, cold, stress, joy), it is strongly recommended to entrust him to a veterinary service.

Tremors in dogs: intoxication or poisoning involved

We are not always suspicious, but some foods that are intended for humans and that we willingly (wrongly) share with our pets can be very dangerous for their health. Dogs, for example, should not eat raisins or chocolate because they have a certain degree of toxicity for the animal.

Even more serious are the plant protection products that are used in the garden or with which houseplants are sometimes treated, which are very toxic for the dog.

The highest level of toxicity is reached with rodenticides, also known as rat poison. If ingested, the dog is poisoned. The consequences are catastrophic because without urgent care, death is inevitable.

Following the ingestion of an unsuitable food or in the hours following its poisoning, the dog presents quite revealing symptoms, such as :

A tremor in the dog may be a reaction to medication. It is best to consult the veterinarian as soon as possible so that he can change the dosage of treatment or prescribe another drug that the animal may tolerate better.

If there is the slightest doubt, the owner whose dog is trembling and suddenly seems quite ill should not hesitate to go to the vet with his little companion. The specialist may prescribe additional tests such as a blood test, a urine analysis, an ultrasound for example. In case of intoxication or poisoning, it is necessary to act urgently.